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Dangerous Parts Guidance

Guidance

Index

 

  1. Machinery - Dangerous Parts of Machinery
  2. Legal Test for Danger
  3. Machinery - Safety Checklist   (Machinery_Safety_Checklist (RTF, 9 KB) can be downloaded )

 

Machinery - Dangerous parts of machinery 

 

Machines taken as a whole cannot be considered to be dangerous per se, but most machines have some parts which are capable of causing injury to those who work at them or come close to them e.g. guillotines, shredders, conveyors, copiers,

lifts, printing machines, baling machines and all the portable tools and fixed machines to be found on the maintenance workbench. The University has a duty to protect staff/students from any parts of dangerous machinery.

 

The dangerous parts inflict their harm in one or more of the ways described here:

 

  • crushing - as when a hand or other part of the body is caught between the tools of a power press or injection moulding machine.
  • by contact - as when a hand slips when an abrasive wheel (grindstone) is being used and comes into contact with the abrasive surface of the wheel rotating at high speed.
  • by trapping - as when a part of the body, or an item of clothing is drawn into a gap or nip such as in-running rollers, or a belt or chain drive.
  • by entanglement - as when a projection on a revolving shaft (or even a smooth shaft) catches and takes up hair or clothing which can eventually involve the whole body of the victim. There is frequently a fatal outcome to entanglement involving the clothing, and where hair is caught scalping is a common consequence.
  • by impact - as when a moving part of a machine strikes part of someone close by.
  • by ejection - as when a machine throws out bits of the material being worked on (grit from a grindstone, wood chips from a circular saw, or molten metal from a die-casting machine), or broken bits of the machinery itself.

 

Legal test for danger

 

There has been a judicial test for establishing what constitutes danger for many years. Parts of machinery are dangerous when they are 'a reasonably foreseeable cause of injury to anybody acting in a way in which a human being may be reasonably expected to act in circumstances which may be reasonably expected to occur'.

 

Once the test is applied and danger is established, the law lays down an absolute standard of protection. The standard is that of 'secure fencing'. Arguments that the guarding would be too expensive or that fitting guards makes the machine unworkable are irrelevant.

 

 

Machinery - Safety Checklist

This checklist may be copied and used for all potentially hazardous equipment other than simple and straightforward items.

 

INFORMATION, INSTRUCTIONS AND SAFE USE

(Machinery_Safety_Checklist (RTF, 9 KB)can be downloaded - Here)

1.  Are there written instructions covering:    

     
        a).  Any unusual hazards or complicated features ? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
        b).  Where approrpiate, emergency shutdown ? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
2.     a).   has instruction, in readily comprehensible form(written or verbal) on all hazards, been passedon to all those who use the equipment? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
2.    b) have any written instructions provided by the manufacturer been passed on to users? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
3.    a) have all users of the equipment been given adequate training in correct use, risks and precautions? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..

3.    b) is a training record kept which verifies this?       

..Y.. ..N.. ..NA..
4.     Is the equipment being used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
5.     If it has been adapted, is the adaptation suitable and safe? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..

6.     Is the equipment used in an appropriate environment? 

        (consider e.g. ventilation, damp, flammable conditions)

..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
7.     If the equipment may be moved, is the weight known? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
8.     a) are the start and stop controls clearly marked? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
        b) are other operating controls, and the contents of any containers, clearly marked? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..

 9.   Are there clear warning notices or markings (e.g. to wear personal protection,                       restriction on use, list of authorised users) where appropriate?

..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
Maintenance      

10.  What are the appropriate intervals for checking:                 

     
                  a) electrical safety? ................................................                    
                  b) any safety devices? ................................................      
11.  If inadequate maintenance could cause the equipment, guards, or other protection to fail in a dangerous way, is there a system of planned preventive maintenance, including, where appropriate, the periodic replacement or refurbishing of items before they reach the end of their useful life? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
12.  Have clear maintenance instructions been given to those responsible for maintaining the equipment? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
Specific Hazards      
13.  Is protection adequate in relation to:                                                                       
             a) items falling from the equipment? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             b) items being ejected?  ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             c) overturning? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             d) collapse?  ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             e) overheating or fire? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
              f) disintegration? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
14.   Is the equipment made stable where appropriate by bolting, clamping or tying? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
15.   Is there sufficient general and, where necessary, local lighting? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
16.        a) is there protection against contact with hot or very cold temperature, so far as appropriate? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
16.        b) if the possibility of such contact is unavoidable has appropriate instruction and training been given? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
17.   In the case of pressurised equipment, is there a written scheme of examination? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
18.   If gas fume or dust is released when the equipment is used, is there:       
             a) local exhaust ventilation, tested annually  OR ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             b) a COSHH specific assessment? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
Dangerous parts of machinery       
19.   Are all dangerous parts of the machinery guarded? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
20.   Are all guards of good construction, adequate strength and well maintained? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
21.   Do guards permit an adequate view of the operationwhere this is necessary? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
22.   Is it difficult to bypass or disable guards? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
23.   Can the machinery only be started when a specific labelled start device is used? (N.B. the normal cycle of automated machinery is exempt from this require-ment) .Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
24.    Is it impossible to start the machine just by resetting a safety device? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
25.    Is there a readily accessible stop device which stops the machinery in a safe way? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
26.    Where appropriate (i.e. where in a foreseeable emergency it could help) is there a prominent easily accessible emergency stop device? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
27.    Can controls be operated safely and easily? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
28.    Is there any system of work which ensures that nobody is in a dangerous position when machinery is about to be started? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
29.    Does the start device need to be activated to restart the machine if:       
             a) the power fails? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             b) a control or safety device fails to trip out? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
30.    If the power is isolated does the machinery come to rest safely without the possibility of access to dangerous parts? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
31.    Can the equipment be securely isolated from power, to prevent inadvertent reconnection:       
             a) by removing a plug from a socket which is easily visible to the person at risk?  OR ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..
             b) by locking it off? ..Y.. ..N.. ..N/A..

 

                      

 

32. SUMMARY

 

Action to be taken in order of priority:  ..............................................................................

 

..........................................................................................................................................

 

..........................................................................................................................................

 

Date by which action to be taken: ..............................................................................

 

Date for review (maximum interval 5 years) ......................................................

 

Machinery_Safety_Checklist (RTF, 9 KB) can be downloaded.

 

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Return to University of St. Andrews Homepage (University)

Machinery_Safety_Checklist (RTF, 9 KB)

Contact

Environmental Health and Safety Services contact details

University of St Andrews
Bute Building Queens Terrace
St Andrews
Fife
KY16 9TS
Scotland, United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)1334 462750
Fax:44 (0)1334 462747