Bentonite & Tonstein Bibliography

This compilation was updated on 4 July 2011.

Please communicate any additions or corrections to:

R A Batchelor

(rab@st-andrews.ac.uk).

 

 

 

Metabentonites within Lower Llandovery sediments at Dob's Linn, Southern Scotland

(RAB 1986).


References are in alphabetical listing by first author. Select letter to target appropriate section.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Abdioglu E & Arslan M. 2005. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of bentonites of the Ordu area, NE Turkey. Clay Minerals 40 131-151.

Addison R, Harrison R K, Land D H & Young B R. 1983. Volcanic tonsteins from Tertiary Coal Measures, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Journal of Coal Geology 3 1-30.

Allen V T. 1929. Altered tuffs in the Ordovician of Minnesota. Journal of Geology 37 239-248.

Altaner S P. 1989. Calculation of K-diffusional rates in bentonite beds. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53 923-931.

Altaner, S P, Hower J, Whitney G & Aronson, J L. 1984. Model for K-bentonite formation; evidence from zoned K-bentonites in the Disturbed Belt, Montana. Geology 12 412-415.

Ames L L jr, Sand L B & Goldich S S. 1958. A contribution on the Hector, California, bentonite deposit. Economic Geology 53 22-37.

Anceau, A. 1992. Sudoite in some Visean (Lower Carboniferous) K-bentonites of Belgium. Clay Minerals 27 283-292.

Andrejkovicova S, Madejova J, Czimerova A et al. 2006. Mineralogy and chemistry of Fe-rich bentonite from the Lieskovec deposit (Central Slovakia). Geologica Carpathica 57 371-378.

Arkell W J & Donovan D T 1952. Fuller's Earth of the Cotswolds and its relation to the Great Oolite. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 108 227.

Aronson J L & Lee M. 1986. K/Ar systematics of bentonite and shale in a contact metamorphic zone, Cerrillos, New Mexico. Clays and Clay Minerals 4 483-487.

Astini R A & Collo G. 2007. Ordovician K-bentonites in the upper plate active margin of western Gondwana, (Famatina Ranges); stratigraphic and palaeogeographic significance. Gondwana Research 11 311-325.

Aucha V, Eberl D D, Kraus I et al. Weathering of smectite and illite-smectite under temperate climatic conditions. Clay Minerals 36, 403-419.

Baadsgaard H & Lerbekmo J F 1983. Rb-Sr and U-Pb dating of bentonites. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 20 1282-1290.

Baadsgaard H, Lerbekmo J F, Wijbrans J R, Swisher C C & Fanning M 1993. Multimethod radiometric age for a bentonite near the top of the basculites - reesidei zone of southwestern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30 769-775.

Baltrusaitis D J 1974. Middle Devonian bentonite in Michigan basin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 58 1323-1330.

Baltrusaitis D J 1975. Reply: Middle Devonian betntonite in Michigan basin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 59 1221.

Barnsley G B, Clowes J M & Fowler W. 1966. Kaolin tonsteins in the Westphalian of North Staffordshire. Geological Magazine 103 508-521.

Batchelor R A. 1995. Metabentonite and tuff occurrence in Silurian greywackes at Grieston Quarry, Innerleithen, Southern Uplands. Scottish Journal of Geology 31 183-185.

Batchelor R A. 1999. Metabentonites from the Silurian inliers of the southern Midland Valley of Scotland: distribution and geochemistry. Scottish Journal of Geology 35 71-77.

Batchelor R A. 2003. Geochemistry of biotite in metabentonites as an age discriminant, indicator of regional magma sources and potential correlating tool. Mineralogical Magazine 67, 807-817.

Batchelor R A. 2004. Air-fall tuffs in the Southern Highland Group, Dalradian Supergroup, at Birnam, Perthshire. Scottish Journal of Geology 40 67-72.

Batchelor R A. 2004. More air-fall tuffs in the Southern Highland Group, Dalradian Supergroup, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 40 181-184.

Batchelor R A. 2005. Tephra-fall deposits in the Sleat Group (Torridonian), Isle of Skye, Scotland. Geological Magazine 142, 209-215.

Batchelor R A. 2009 (for 2008). Geochemical 'Golden Spike' for Lower Palaeozoic metabentonites. Earth and Environmental Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 99, 177-187.

Batchelor R A & Clarkson E N K. 1993. Geochemistry of a Silurian metabentonite and associated apatite from the North Esk Inlier, Pentland Hills. Scottish Journal of Geology 29 123-130.

Batchelor R A & Evans J. 2000. Use of strontium isotope ratios and Rare Earth elements in apatite microphenocrysts for characterisation and correlation of Silurian metabentonites. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 80 3-8.

Batchelor R A & Evans J. 2004. Rare earth element and Sr-Nd isotope geeochemistry of primary apatite crystals in metabentonites from Dob's Linn, southern Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 40, 43-48.

Batchelor R A, Harper, D A T & Anderson, T B. 2003. Geochemistry and potential correlation of Silurian (Telychian) metabentonites from Ireland and SW Scotland. Geological Journal 38, 161-174.

Batchelor R A & Jeppsson L. 1994. Late Llandovery bentonites from Gotland, Sweden, as chemostratigraphic markers. Journal of the Geological Society of London 151 741-746.

Batchelor R A & Jeppsson L. 1999. Wenlock metabentonites from Gotland, Sweden: geochemistry, sources and potential as chemostratigraphic markers. Geological Magazine 136 661-669.

Batchelor R A & Weir J A. 1988. Metabentonite geochemistry: magmatic cycles and graptolite extinctions at Dob's Linn, southern Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 79 19-41.

Batchelor R A, Weir J A & Spjeldnaes N. 1995. Geochemistry of Telychian metabentonites from Vik, Ringerike District, Oslo Region. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 75 219-228

Bateson J H. 1965. Accretionary lapilli in geosynclinal environments. Geological Magazine 102 1-7.

Battaglia S, Leoni L & F Sartori F. 2004. The Kübler Index in late diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic pelites: a critical comparison of data from 10 Å and 5 Å peaks. Clays and Clay Minerals 52, 85-105.

Beall A O (jr) & Ojakangas R W. 1967. Mineralogy of an upper Cambrian K-bentonite from Missouri. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 37 952-956.

Benedict L J & Ver Straeten C A. 2005. Geochemical and physical evidence indicating complex depositional and eruptive histories for Devonian K-bentonites of the Appalachian foreland basin. Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section, 40th annual meeting, Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 37 73.

Benito R, Garcia-Guinea J, Valle Fuentes F J & Recio P. 1998. Mineralogy, geochemistry and uses of the mordenite-bentonite ash-tuff beds of Los Escullos, Almeria, Spain. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 62 229-240.

Berg R B. 1969. Bentonite in Montana. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 74 34 pp.

Bergström S M. 1989. Use of graphic correlation for assessing event-stratigraphic significance and trans-Atlantic relationships of Ordovician K-bentonites. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences 38 55-59.

Bergström S M, Huff, W D & Kolata D R. 1998. The Lower Silurian Osmundsberg K-bentonite. Part 1: Stratigraphic position, distribution and palaeogeographic significance. Geological Magazine 135 1-13.

Bergström, S M, Huff, W D & Kolata, D R. 1998. Early Silurian (Llandoverian) K-bentonites discovered in the southern Appalachian thrust belts, eastern USA: Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and tectonomagmatic and paleogeographic implications. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 120 149-158.

Bergström S M, Huff, W D, Kolata D R & Bauert H. 1995. Nomenclature, stratigraphy, chemical fingerprinting and areal distribution of some Middle Ordovician K-bentonites in Baltoscandia. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 117 1-13.

Bergström S M, Huff, W D, Kolata D R & Kaljo D. 1992 Silurian K-bentonites in the Iapetus region: a preliminary event-stratigraphic and tectonomagmatic assessment. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 114 327-334.

Bergström S M, Huff, W D, Kolata D R & Melchin M J. 1997. Occurrence and significance of Silurian K-bentonite bedds at Arisaig, Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 34 1630-1643.

Bergström S M, Huff, W D, Kolata D R, Yost D A & Hart C. 1997. A unique Middle Ordovician K-bentonite bed succession at Rostanga, S Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 119 231-244.

Bergström, S M, Huff W D, Koren T, Larsson K, Ahlberg P, Kolata, D R. 1999. The 1997 core drilling through Ordovician and Silurian strata at Rostanga, S. Sweden: Preliminary stratigraphic assessment and regional comparison. Geologiska Foreningens I Stockholm Forhandlingar 121 127-135.

Bergström, S M, Huff W D, Saltzman M R, Kolata D R & Leslie S A. 2004. The greatest volcanic ash falls in the Phanerozoic. The Sedimentary Record 2, No.4, 4-7.

Bergström S M, Toprak F Ö, Huff W D & Mundil R. 2008. Implications of a new, biostratigraphically well-controlled radio-isotopic age for the lower Telychian Stage of the Llandovery Series (Lower Silurian, Sweden). Episodes 31 309-314.

Bergström S M & Nilsson R. 1974. Age and correlation of the Middle Ordovician bentonites on Bornholm. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 23 27-48.

Berkley J L & Baird G C. 2002. Calcareous K-bentonite deposits in the Urica Shale and Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician) of the Mohawk Valley, New York State. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 27, 265-278.

Bertog J L & Huff W. 2007. Geochemical and mineralogical recognition of the bentonites in the
lower Pierre Shale Group and their use in regional stratigraphic correlation. In "The geology and paleontology of the Late Cretaceous marine deposits of the Dakotas". Special Paper - Geological Society of America 427 23-50.

Bieg G & Burger K. 1992. Preliminary study of tonsteins of the Pastora Formation (Stephanian B) of the Cinera - Matallana coalfield, northwestern Spain. International Journal of Coal Geology 21 139-160.

Bogvad R. 1947. Om muligheten for tillstedevaerelsen af bentonit paa Bornholm. Meddelelser Dansk Geologisk Forening 11 47-54.

Bogvad R. 1947. Bentonit og skiferler. Meddelelser Dansk Geologisk Forening 11 224-225.

Bohor B F, Hatch J R & Hill D J. 1976. Altered volcanic ash partings as stratigraphic marker beds in coals of the Rocky Mountain region. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 60 651.

Bohor B F, Philips R E & Pollastro R M. 1979. Altered volcanic ash partings in Wasatch Formation coal beds of the northern Powder River basin. U S Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1203 21pp.

Bohor B F & Triplehorn D M. 1984. Accretionary lapilli in altered tuffs associated wirh coal beds. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 54 11-25.

Bohor B F & Triplehorn D M. 1993. Tonsteins; altered volcanic ash layers in coal-bearing sequences. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 285 44pp.

Bonine C A & Honess A P. 1929. Bentonite in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences Proceedings 3 1-8.

Borchardt G A, Harward M E & Schmitt R A. 1971. Correlation of volcanic ash deposits by activation analysis of glass separates. Quaternary Research 1 247-260.

Borchardt G A, Norgren J A & Harward M E. 1973. Correlation of ash layers in peat bogs of eastern Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84 3101-3108.

Bouroz A. 1962. Sur la pluralite d'origine des Tonsteins. Societe Geologique du Nord Annales 82 77-94.

Bouroz A. 1966. Frequence des manifestations volcaniques au Carbonifere superieur en France. Comptes Rendus Academie des Sciences 263 1025-1028.

Bouroz A. 1967. Correlation des Tonsteins d'origine volcanique entre les bassin Houillers de Sarre Lorraine et du Nord-pas-de-Calais. Comptes Rendus Academie des Sciences 264 2729-2732.

Bouroz A, Chalard J & Dolle P. 1953. Extension geographique et valeur stratigraphique des Tonsteins du bassin Houillers du nord de la France. Societe Geologique du Nord Annales 73 98-141.

Bradshaw M J. 1975. Origin of montmorillonite bands in the Middle Jurassic of eastern England. Earth & Planetary Science Letters 26 245-252.

Braithwaite R L. 2003. Geological and mineralogical characterization of zeolites in lacustrine tuffs, Ngakuru, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Clays and Clay Minerals 51, 589-598.

Brindley G W. 1957. Fuller's Earth from near Dry Branch, Georgia; a montmorillonite - cristobalite clay. Clay Minerals Bulletin (GB) 3 167-169.

Brun J & Chagnon A. 1979. Rock stratigraphy and clay mineralogy of volcanic ash beds from the Black River and Trenton Groups (Midle Ordovician) of southern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 16 1499-1507.

Brusewitz A M. 1986. Chemical and physical properties of Paleozoic potassium bentonites from Kinnekulle, Sweden. Clays and Clay Minerals 34 442-454.

Brusewitz A M. 1988. Asymmetric zonation of a thick Ordovician K-bentonite bed at Kinnekulle, Sweden. Clays and Clay Minerals 36 349-353.

Burger K. 1958. Uber 2 neue tonsteinfunde aus dem floznebengestein des ruhrkarbons. Bergfreiheit 23 49-51.

Burger K. 1966. Zur entstehung der kaolinit-formentypen (graupen und kristalle) in kaolin-kohlen-tonsteinen. Geologische Mitteilungen 6 43-86.

Burger K. 1979. Vorkommen und stratigraphische verteilung des kaolin-kohlentonstein in der kohlen-revieren der erde. Congress International Stratigraphy Geology Carboniferous, 8th Moscow, Comptes Rendus 5 21-31.

Burger K 1985. Petrography and chemistry of tonsteins of the coal basins of western Europe and north America. Congress International Stratigraphy Geology Carboniferous, 9th Champ-Urbana, Illinois, Comptes Rendus 4 449-466.

Burger K. 1990. Vulkanogene glasscherben-relikte in kohlentonsteinen des Saar-Lothringer oberkarbons sowie herkunft und menge der pyroklastica. Geologische Rundschau 79 659-691.

Burger K & Damberger H H. 1985. Tonsteins in the coal fields of western Europe and north America. Congress International Stratigraphy Geology Carboniferous, 9th Champ-Urbana, Illinois, Comptes Rendus 4 433-448.

Burger K, Zhou Y & Tang D. 1990. Syn-sedimentary volcanic ash-derived illite tonsteins in late Permian coal-bearing formations of southwestern China. International Journal of Coal Geology 15 341-356.

Bystrom A M. 1957. The clay minerals in the Ordovician bentonite beds in Billingen, south-west Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 79 52-56.

Bystrom-Asklund A M, Baadsgard H & Folinsbee R E. 1961. K/Ar age of biotite, sanidine and illite from Middle Ordovician bentonites at Kinnekulle, Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 83, 92-96.

Caballero E, Reyes E, Delgado A, Huertas F & Linares J. 1992. The formation of bentonite; mass balance effects. Applied Clay Science 6 265-276.

Caballero E, Jimenez de Cisneros C, Huertas F J et al. 2005. Bentonites from Cabo de Gata, Almería Spain: A mineralogical and geochemical overview. Clay Minerals 40 463-480.

Caddah L F G, Alves D B & Mizusaki A M P. 1998. Turbidites associated with bentonites in the upper Cretaceous of the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Sedimentary Geology 115 175-184.

Cadrin A A J, Kyser T K, Caldwell W G E & Longstaff F J. 1996. Isotopic and chemical compositions of bentonites as palaeoenvironmental indicators of the cretaceous western interior. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 119 301-320.

Calarge L, Lanson B, Meunier A & Formoso M L. 2003. The smectitic minerals in a bentonite deposit from Melo (Uruguay). Clay Minerals 38, 25-34.

Calarge L M, Meunier A. & Formoso M L. 2003. A bentonite bed in the Aceguá (RS, Brazil) and Melo (Uruguay) areas: a highly crystallized montmorillonite. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 16 187-198.

Calarge L M & Meunier A. 2006. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a
bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 78 525-541.

Cameron T D J & Anderson T B. 1980. Silurian metabentonites in County Down, Northern Ireland. Geological Journal 15 59-75.

Cara S, Palomba M, Tamanini M, et al. 2000. The bentonites in pelotherapy: chemical, mineralogical and technological properties of materials from Sardinia deposits (Italy). Applied Clay Science 16, 117-124.

Cave R & Loydell D K. 1998. Wenlock volcanism in the Welsh Basin. Geological Journal 33, 107-120.

Cavell P A & Baadsgaard H. 1986. U-Pb systematics in zircons from Silurian bentonites, Gotland, Sweden. Bulletin of Liason & Informations, IGCP Project 19 65-67.

Celik M, Karakaya N, Temel A. 1999. Clay minerals in hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, Eastern Pontides, Turkey. Clays & Clay Minerals 47 708-717.

Cetin K & Huff W D. 1995. Layer charge and smectite-like character of the expandable component of illite/smectite in K-bentonite as determined by alkylammoniun ion exchange. Clays and Clay Minerals 43 150-158.

Chapuis R P & Pouliot G. 1996. Determination of bentonite content in soil-bentonite liners by X-ray Diffraction. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33 760-769.

Christidis G E 1995. Mechanism of illitization of bentonites in the geothermal field of Milos Island, Greece - evidence based on mineralogy, chemistry, particle thickness and morphology. Clays and Clay Minerals 43 569-585.

Christidis G E. 1998. Comparative study of the mobility of major and trace elements during alteration of an andesite and a rhyolite to bentonite, in the islands of Milos and Kimolos, Aegean, Greece. Clays and Clay Minerals 46 379-399.

Christidis G E. 1998. Physical and chemical properties of some bentonite deposits of Kimolos Island, Greece. Applied Clay Science 13, 79-98.

Christidis G E. 2001. Geochemical correlation of bentonites from Milos Island, Aegean, Greece. Clay Minerals 36, 295-306.

Christidis G E & Dunham A C. 1993. Compositional variations in smectites: part 1. Alteration of intermediate rocks. A case study from Milos Island, Greece. Clay Minerals 28 255-274.

Christidis G E & Markopoulos T. 1995. Mechanisms of formation of kaolinite and halloysite in the bentonite deposits of Milos Island, Greece. Chemie Der Erde - Geochemistry 55 315-329.

Christidis G E & Scott P W. 1996. Physical and chemical properties of bentonite deposits of Milos Island, Greece. Transactions Of The Institute Of Mining And Metallurgy, Section B. 105 B165-B174.

Christidis G E & Scott P W. 1997. The origin and colour of white bentonites from the Aegean islands of Milos and Kimolos. Mineralium Deposita 32, 271-279.

Christidis G E, Scott P W & Markopoulos T. 1995. Origin of the bentonite deposits of eastern Milos, Aegean, Greece - geological, mineralogical and geochemical evidence. Clays and Clay Minerals 43 63-77.

Churchman G J, Wright M, Raven M D et al. 2002. Geotechnical properties indicating environmental uses for an unusual Australian bentonite. Applied Clay Science 20, 199-209.

Clauer N, Liewig N, Pierret M-C & Toulkeridis T. 2003. Crystallization conditions of fundamental particles from mixed-layer illite-smectite of bentonites based on isotopic data (K-Ar, Rb-Sr and ­18O). Clays and Clay Minerals 51 664-674.

Clauer N, Srodon J, Francu J & Sucha V. 1997. K-Ar dating of illite/smectite fundamental particles in bentonites. Clay Minerals 32 181-196.

Clayton T, Francis J E, Hillier S J, Hodson F, Saunders R A & Stone J. 1996. The implications of reworking on the mineralogy and chemistry of lower Carboniferous K-bentonites. Clay Minerals 31 377-390.

Coccioni R, Morandi N & Tateo F 1994. In: R. Coccioni, A. Montanari & G.S. Odin (eds.) Miocene stratigraphy of Italy and adjacent regions. The "Livello Raffaello" (early Miocene) in the Umbria - Marche Appennines: stratigraphy, paleontology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Giornale Di Geologia 56 55-78.

Collins H R. 1979. Devonian bentonites in eastern Ohio. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 63 655-660.

Compston W. 2000. Interpretation of SHRIMP and isotope dilution zircon ages for the Palaeozoic time-scale: II. Silurian to Devonian. Mineralogical Magazine 64 1127-1146.

Compston W. 2000. Interpretations of SHRIMP and isotope dilution zircon ages for the Geological time-scale: I. The early Ordovician and late Cambrian. Mineralogical Magazine 64 43-57.

Compston W, Wright A E & Toghill P. 2002. Dating the Late Precambrian volcanicity of England and Wales. Journal of the Geological Society of London 159, 323-339.

Compton J S, Conrad M E, Vennemann T W. 1999. Stable isotope evolution of volcanic ash layers during diagenesis of the Miocene Monterey formation, California. Clays & Clay Minerals 47 84-95.

Cravero F, Keith C S, Murray H H & Toth T. 2000. A white bentonite from San Juan Province, Argentina - geology and potential industrial applications. Applied Clay Science 16 31-43.

Crowley S S, Stanton R W & Ryer T A. 1989. The effects of volcanic ash on the maceral and chemical composition of the C coal bed, Emery coalfield, Utah. Organic Geochemistry 14 315-331.

Cuadros J & Linares J. 1996. Experimental kinetic study of the smectite to illite transformation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 439-453.

Cuadros J & Altaner S P. 1998. Compositional and structural features of the octahedral sheet in mixed-layer illite/smectite from bentonites. European Journal Of Mineralogy 10 111-124.

Cuadros J, SainzDiaz C I, Ramirez R & Hernandez Laguna A. 1999. Analysis of Fe segregation in the octahedral sheet of bentonitic illite-smectite by means of FTIR, Al-27 MAS NMR and reverse Monte Carlo simulations. American Journal of Science 299 289-308.

Cullen-Lollis J & Huff W D. 1986. Correlation Of Champlainian (Middle Ordovician) K-Bentonite beds in Central Pennsylvania (USA). Journal of Geology 94 865-874.

Das Gupta S. 1996. Bentonite deposits intercalated with the Rajmahal volcanic rocks of eastern India. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 13 133-137.

Davis J C. 1965. Bentonite deposits of the Clay Spur district, Crook and Weston counties, Wyoming. Wyoming Geological Survey Preliminary Report 4 17pp.

Decher A, Bechtel A, Echle W, Friedrich G & Hoernes S. 1996. Stable isotope geochemistry of bentonites from the Island of Milos (Greece). Chemical Geology 129 101-113.

Deconinck J F, Amedro F, Desprairies A., Juignet P & Robaszynski F. 1991. Niveaux repères de bentonites d'origine volcanique dans les craies du Turonien supérieur du Boulonnais et de Haute-Normandie. Comptes Rendus de l' Academie des Sciences, Paris 312, 897-903.

Deconinck J F & Chamley H. 1995. Diversity of smectite origins in Late Cretaceous sediments: example of chalks from northern France. Clay Minerals 30, 365-379.

Delano J W, Schirnick C, Bock B, Kidd W, Heizler M, Putnam G, De Long S & Ohr M. 1990. Petrology And geochemistry of Ordovician K-bentonites in New York state; constraints on the nature of a volcanic arc. Journal of Geology 98 157-170.

Delano J W, Tice S J, Mitchell C E & Goldman D. 1994. Rhyolite glass in Ordovician K-bentonites; a new stratigraphic tool. Geology 22 115-118.

Delgado A & Reyes E. 1996. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in clay minerals: a potential single-mineral geothermometer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 4285-4289.

Dengo G. 1946. Geology of bentonite deposits near Casper, Natrona County, Wyoming. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 37 28PP.

DeSantis M K. 2005. Regional correlation of the Middle Devonian Tioga K-bentonites using
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Desborough G A, Pitman J K & Donnell J R. 1973. Microprobe analysis of biotites - a method for correlating tuff beds in the Green River Formation, Colorado and Utah. U S Geological Survey Journal of Research 1 39-44.

Desmares D & Beaudoin B. 2002. High-resolution variability of stratigraphic records constrained by volcanic ashes the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in the Western Interior basin. Abstracts with Program, Geological Society of America 34, no. 6, 135

Diessel C F K. 1963. On the petrography of some Australian tonsteins. Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Max Richter Festschrift 149-166.

Diessel C F K. 1985. Tuffs and tonsteins in the coal measures of New South Wales, Australia. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, Madrid, 1983. 4 197-210.

Dong H L, Hall C M, Peacor D R, et al. 2000. Thermal Ar-40/Ar-39 separation of diagenetic from detrital illitic clays in Gulf Coast shales. Earth & Planetary Science Letters 175 309-325.

Dopita M & Kralik J. 1977. Coal tonsteins in Ostrava - Karvina coal basin. Ostrava, Czechoslovakia 213pp.

Droste J B & Shaver R H. 1975. Middle Devonian bentonite in Michigan basin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 59 1217-1221.

Droste J B & Vitaliano C J. 1973. Tioga bentonite (Middle Devonian) of Indiana. Clays and Clay Minerals Bulletin 21 9-13.

Ebner F & Graf W. 1977. Die bentonitvorkommen der Nordoststeiermark. Mitteilungen Abteilung Fur Geologie Pal»ontologie Und Bergbau Am Landesmuseum Johanneum Graz. 38 9-30.

Ebner F. 1981. Vulkanische tuffe in Mioz»n der Steiermark. Mitteilungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines Fur Steiermark. 111 39-55.

Ebner F & Graf W. 1982. Bentonite und glastuffe der Steiermark. Archiv Fur Lagerstattenforschung Der Geologischen Bundesanstalt. 2 31-45.

Ece O I, Nakagawa Z E & Schroeder P A. 2003. Alteration of volcanic rocks and genesis of kaolin deposits in the Sile region, northern Istanbul, Turkey. I: clay mineralogy. Clays and Clay Minerals 51, 675-688.

Ece O I & Nakagawa Z E. 2003. Alteration of volcanic rocks and genesis of kaolin deposits in the Sile Region, northern Ystanbul, Turkey. Part II: differential mobility of elements. Clay Minerals 38, 529-550.

Eden R A, Elliot R W, Elliot R E & Young B R. 1963. Tonstein bands in the coalfields of the East Midlands. Geological Magazine 100 47-58.

Egger H, Heilmann-Clausen C, Schmitz B. 2000. The Paleocene/Eocene-boundary interval of a Tethyan deep-sea section (Austria) and its correlation with the North Sea basin. Bulletin Societe Geologique de la France 171 207-216.

Elder W P. 1988. Geometry of upper Cretaceous bentonite beds; implications about volcanic source areas and palaeowind patterns, Western Interior, United States. Geology 16 835-838.

Elliott W C & Aronson J L. 1987. Alleghanian episode of K-bentonite illitization in the southern Appalachian basin. Geology 15 735-739.

Elliott W C & Aronson J L. 1993. The timing and extent of illite formation in Ordovician K-bentonites at the Cincinnati Arch, the Nashville Dome and north-eastern Illinois basin. Basin Research 5 125-135.

Elliott W C, Aronson J L, Matisoff G & Gautier D L. 1991. Kinetics of the smectite to illite transformation in the Denver basin: clay mineral, K-Ar data, and mathematical model results. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 75 436-462.

Elshabiny A M, Hammad S M, Ibrahim I A & Ismail A K. 1996. Combined thermal and structural study of some egyptian bentonitic clays. Journal of Thermal Analysis 46 1421-1435.

Eslinger E V & Yeh H W. 1986. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous bentonites and shales from the Disturbed Belt, Montana. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50 59-68.

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