RUTHVEN, PATRICK [SSNE 3413]
- RUTHVEN, RUTHWEN, REDWEN, ROTWEIN, RUDVEN, RÖDWIJN, RÖDVEN, RÖDWEN
- First name
- PATRICK, PATRIK, PATRICH, PATRICIUS, PETER, PADRUIG, PATKELL
- EARL OF FORTH AND BRENTFORD
- BALLINDEAN, Carse of Gowrie, PERTH AND KINROSS
- Social status
Patrick Ruthven (c.1572?-1651) was born sometime between the 1570s and 1580s to William Ruthven of Ballindean and his wife Katherine Stewart. While the exact date of Ruthven’s birth is not known, there are two sources which suggest different years. The first is a 1623 painting of Ruthven in Skokloster Castle, Sweden, which includes the text, ‘Natus A- 1586’. The second, which seems to be an estimate of age, comes from a printed newsbook from 1631 which discusses the Scottish general who became governor of Ulm in his sixties. This would suggest a date of birth in 1572. Little is known of his childhood, which would have been spent at Ballindean between the Sidlaw Hills and the Carse of Gowrie.
Ruthven undertook active Swedish service from c.1608 to 1637 at which point he returned to Scotland to enter King Charles I's service. Ruthven's earliest Swedish service as an officer in the army dates from c.1608/1609 when he is noted as being sent under the auspices of James Spens [SSNE 1642] to Britain on a recruitment mission. Ruthven accompanied other well established Scottish members of the Swedish military corps: Samuel Cockburn [SSNE 4219], Hugh Cochran [SSNE 4221], Daniel Rogers [SSNE 4222], Robert Kinnaird [SSNE 4223], John Wauchop [SSNE 4220] George Douglas [SSNE 2129] and William Horne [SSNE 4224]. Ruthven is also noted as a captain of horse for a troops of Scottish cavalry in 1609, and served as a captain in Samuel Cockburn's regiment by 1614. In 1610 he received 4358 daler pay. In 1615 there is a muster-roll of 'Peter' (commonly interchanged with 'Patrick') Ruthven's company in Swedish service, and that year he was apparently again recruiting in Scotland. He had a company of 160 men that year. There is a printed commission from King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden for captain Ruthven to levy troops, dated 6 February 1615. During 1616 Ruthven was in turn a quartermaster general, a chief master of the watch and commandant/governor of Pskov/Pleskau during one of Sweden's Russian campaigns and as a lieutenant-colonel for the Kalmar/Smaland regiment the following year. Ruthven appears to have held land in Smaland, Sweden since 1618, probably donations in lieu of salary or reimbursement for expenses as was the norm: Brevik in Eksjö in Småland; Jönköping; Ljungbyholm in Kalmarlän.
In 1621 Ruthven raised the Skaraborg regiment and Riga hosted his regiment that year and the following year he became the colonel for the Smaland/Kalmar regiment (in which capacity he also acted for a Kronoberg regiment) which rank he held until 1629. In 1623 there was a rumour of a Polish landing in Sweden and both Ruthven and Lars Kagg were selected to command at Kalmar, to the extent that if the city could not be defended, they should torch it and barricade themselves in the castle.
In 1626 he became colonel for the Kalmar regiment (made official on 5 June 1627) with a salary of 2000 rdl per annum and also held the post of commandant at Marienburg that year. In November Chancellor Oxenstierna noted that his men were amongst the many of the Swedish army which were seriously ill - in these regiments there were companies where no more than 30 of the ordinary soldiers were fit. Just the following month he was appointed commandant of Marienburg whilst the Swedish Field Marshal and Major-General were on campaign. Oxenstierna supplied Ruthven with a seven-point memorial outlining his duties. He was knighted 23 September 1627 by Gustav II Adolf in his tent while he was on campaign in Darschau, Prussia. Alexander Leslie [SSNE 1] and David Drummond [SSNE 2396] were also knighted at that time. Drummond commanded one of the two Ruthven regiments (Ruthwens Gamla Regiment) while Ruthven himself took over Von Scheidings regiment. In 1628 he became commandant/governor of Marienburg. As part of Ruthven's duties as commandant of Marienburg Chancellor Oxenstierna commanded him to organise the repair work to the dam at Tiegenoort in February 1629 as it had burst and laid surrounding areas under flood. Additionally, in April Ruthven was called upon to discipline some of Captain Potley's [SSNE 3273] troops who had mutinied.
In June 1629 Ruthven was awarded 5,000 riksdaler to recruit a regiment in Britain (although in late August Oxenstierna was still trying to obtain the funds for him) - he also sent some of his officers to Denmark to see if some of those decommissioned from King Christian IV's army would enter Swedish service. That year he was also appointed governor of Elbing in July, where one of his first duties was to strengthen and fortify the palisades. Chancellor Oxenstierna was based at the camp at Marienburg at this time and by August the troops were starving. He ordered Ruthven to obtain agreement from the Elbing town council that they would supply 6000 loaves of bread daily, at Swedish expense, to keep the army fed. The following year he was placed in guard of the town and castle of Marienburg, and in March he replaced Johan Baner as governor of Memel until 1631. About his appointment Oxenstierna said on 14 March 1630: "hafver jag ingen inlendske här haft, och ibland dhem fremmandhe ingen där jag håller att hafva een stadigere och mehra perpetual intention att continuere Kng. M:tts tiänst, uthan öfversten Redhwen". Indeed when Oxenstierna had to leave Elbing in May 1631 to meet the Swedish king he left Ruthven and Bengt Bagge in place to administer Elbing in his absence.
Ruthven was created Count of Kirchberg, in Germany in April 1632 and made Governor of Ulm the same year. Recruitment remained a major part of Ruthven's duties and in February 1632 Chancellor Oxenstierna exhorted the mayor and council of Ulm to lend Ruthven funds to recruit. Similarly in May he requested that Ruthven assist Major General Schaffalitzky and colonels Chanowsky and Wildeisen to muster their regiments. In September that year, Ruthven's regiment are said to have killed 300 Imperialists under Monte-Cuculi (Ernesto Earl of Montecuccoli de Montecerioand) taken 150 more prisoners in a skirmish with Bavarian forces near Kempten. He also became sergeant-major-general around October 1632 under Count Palatine Christian of Birkenfeld and moved his quarters to Augsburg, his force totalling some 7000 men.
On 19 February 1633 near Ulm he seriously injured the Swedish colonel, Sperreuter, in a duel. His military actions after this date were recorded in detail by The Swedish Intelligencer. For example, that year, Ruthven crossed the Danube and ‘fell upon some Bavarian horse, near unto Erbach.’ He defeated six companies and took the General Master of the Provision as a prisoner. He also captured a ‘catalogue of all the cities, towns and villages of the whole Dukedom of Wurtemberg, parted among the Imperialists, where every officer should have his quarter, and the contribution every place should afford.’
In 1633 he obtained the duchy of Kirchberg in Franconia. Ruthven undertook a recruitment mission on behalf of Axel Oxenstierna to London and the Hague in 1634 and he passed through Frankfurt am main. On his return he was made lieutenant-general in Baner's army in Thuringen in 1635 and served as the commanding officer of all the Swedish troops in Altmark. According to some sources Patrick was offered command of the Westphalian army, but did not take it. However, despite his promotions, Ruthven wished to leave Swedish service, first mentioned in 1634.
In April 1635 Ruthven was in Paris where he met with King Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, who Ruthven said had both tried to persuade him to enter French service. In a letter to Lord Ogilvy, Ruthven stated that the king said he would not deny him anything he wanted that France could afford. France declared war on Spain a month later, but Ruthven continued in Swedish service. His troops were instrumental to the victory at Doemitz in October 1635: The Saxonian lieutenant-general Baudissin besieged Doemitz [Mecklenburg], but the Swedish commander Iltzwitzky [Jeßwitzky] set fire to the town to defend himself. Johan Banér sent Ruthven with 4,000 horsemen and 800 musketeers to attack the Saxonian troops, while Iltzwitzky sallied forth from the town. One half of the Saxons were killed, the others captured and enrolled into the Swedish army. A tactical error during the battle at Petersberg, Halle in March 1636, perhaps helped to firm Ruthven's decision to leave Swedish service. Baner made reference to it, and in April Ruthven authorised the selling off of his Swedish property through the Stuart agent in Hamburg. Ruthven officially left Swedish service on 27 June 1637.
Ruthven in Scotland and England
Ruthven arrived in Edinburgh by June that year when he was noted by Alexander Cunningham [SSNE 2115] (then in Britain for more levies) as being en-route to take up his new appointment from King Charles I as one of his lieutenant-generals. In 1637 Ruthven received 1200 rixdaler by way of a Swedish pension. On 3 July 1637, Eleazer Borthwick [SSNE 1064] wrote to the Marquis of Hamilton noting the return to Britain of General Ruthven with his pension and the fact that Ruthven was well in with John Stewart, Earl of Traquair and James Stewart, 4th Duke of Richmond. On his return to Scotland, in 1638, Ruthven was created muster-master-general of Royalist forces in Scotland. In 1639 he was offered command of the Royalist army to tackle the Covenanters, but declined because he was not given absolute authority in military affairs. He had been asked to share power with the nobility. Later that year he was created Baron Ruthven of Ettrick. He served as Governor of Edinburgh Castle which he surrendered to the Covenanters on 19 September 1640 after a 9 month siege. His garrison of 100 Englishmen were effectively starved out. That year Parliament confiscated his lands, only to return them in 1641 after an intervention by Alexander Leslie. In Royal service he was joined by his son, Alexander [SSNE 3402]. Patrick was created the Earl of Forth in 1642. One source notes that Patrick had returned to Sweden in 1642 and did not return to Britain until just before the battle of Edgehill, in which he fought as Field Marshall. Before the battle, a row erupted with the Earl of Lindsey over which formation should be used. Ruthven was appointed General-in-Chief of Charles I's army with the title of Lord General. He was wounded in 1643, created Earl of Brentford in 1644 and declared a traitor by the Scottish parliament the same year. His lands were re-confiscated (and finally sold-off in 1650). In March 1645 Ruthven became one of the advisors to Charles, Prince of Wales, at his headquarters in Bristol. The Prince’s council was responsible for co-ordinating the Royalist war effort in Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, and Somerset.
Ruthven with the Stuart court in exile
In 1646 he was chamberlain to Charles, Prince of Wales, whom he accompanied to Jersey and France in 1646. Ruthven's correspondence with Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna continued, particularly in request of his outstanding pension. In December 1647 he suggested the use of James King [SSNE 2814] or James Maclean [SSNE 5433] as agents to handle his money. Ruthven remained loyal to the Stuarts and travelled to Sweden in 1649 as an official Stuart envoy. In 1650 he was with Charles II in Scotland. However, he returned to Sweden soon after and was again a courtier in Sweden from late 1650-51.
Ruthven is said in some sources to have died in or close to Buxtehude near Hamburg sometime before February 1651 (dates vary) after a journey which took him from Kalmar to Copenhagen and Bremen with Sir William Swann [SSNE 4148] and 2 companions. In Buxtehude, Swann and Colonel Patrick More [SSNE 1205] took Ruthven's body to a nearby Kloster where he was buried.
Some sources claim that Patrick Ruthven was entombed near Dundee at Monifieth Parish Church in the Grange of Durham family’s burying-aisle. This family were noted Royalists who also helped the Marquis of Montrose on his way to Sweden. The church was razed and rebuilt in 1812. The disinterring and shipping of a body from Germany to Scotland during the Cromwellian Usurpation seems unlikely, especially given the poverty in which the general's family found themselves. Nevertheless a plaque commemorating him is found in the present day church. In all probability, the 'General Ruthven' buried there was John Ruthven [SSNE 191], the nephew of Patrick and a man who is often conflated with him.
According to all the biographies, Ruthven was married several times, first to a daughter of Alexander Leslie, second to Jane Henderson [SSNE 6244], sister of the Imperialist colonel John Henderson [SSNE 53] (later Stuart Ambassador), and thirdly to Clara Bramford (aka Berner). The first is an error, and conflated Patrick with his nephew John Ruthven who was actually Leslie's son-in-law.
According to one source he had only one surviving son, Alexander [SSNE 3402], but he died before his father after service in the Swedish army. Ruthven's daughter, Lady Jane Ruthven [SSNE 6301] corresponded with the English Parliament from Stockholm in 1652. She became involved in inheritance disputes with Patrick's third wife, Clara Berner, who did not die until 1679. Ruthven made his will on 9 May 1649 and in it left all his Swedish lands to his son Alexander's widow, Anna Erasma Klencke and Patrick's son by the same marriage (Jane Henderson), also called Patrick. These lands were Brevik (Jönköping Lan). To his wife, Clara Berner and their son Patrick, he donated Ljunsbyholm in Kalmar Lan and Sackendorf in Mecklenburg. His other goods in Scotland he left to Clara Berner. Clara and his daughter-in-law Anna Klence fought protracted disputes over the Smaland lands, even until 1669 and these involved royal intervention. The executors to his will were General James King [SSNE 2814] (to take care of the Swedish side) and Jakob Pringle of Huitbank (to take care of the Scottish side).
The above mentioned portrait of Ruthven is in Skokloster castle, originally commissioned by General Wrangel in 1623. He is one of five Scottish officers displayed there.
Axel Oxenstierna to Patrick Ruthven, Elbing 9 March 1630.[RAOSB, V] “Kong. M:ttz min allernådigste herres och Sveriges rijkes rådh, canzler, fulmechtige commissarius och guberneur general i Pryssen, jag A. O. etc. Gör vetterligtt, att efter öfversten och guberneuren på Memel, edle och välborne her Johan Baner til Mulhamer, riddere, ähr aff Kong. M:tt affordratt till Sverige, och festningen samptt des lähn icke kan i medler tijdh vara uthan föreståndare och capitain, därföre hafver jag på högstbe:tte H. K. M:ts vegnar och till des vijdhare resolution förordnadt och tilbetroott, efter som harmed förordnas och tilbetroos, öfversten edle och välborne her Patrich Rudven, riddare, Memels festning, stadh och lähn, medh alle des tilbehöringar, att blijffva däröfver guberneur, altt att dirigera och administrera efter den instruction honom frambdeles giffven varder, enkanneligen att holla festningen och landed Kong. M:tt och Sveriges chrono till trogen handh, försöriendhes den med flijtig vachtt och upsyn, och icke leffverera den någon annan ähn den Kong. M:tt sielff dijtt förordnar eller aff general guberneuren efter Kong. M:ttz befalning dijtt förordnat vardher. Befaler därför harmed på högstbe:te Kong. M:ttz vegnar alle officerer, rytter, soldater, som där i festningen, stadhen och landed quarterede och liggendhe ähre, enkanneligen dem, som uthij garnizon ähre förordnedhe eller ähnnu kone förordnes, så och amptschrijffvare, borgemästare, rådh, gemene borgerskap smaptt gemene almoge, att de bevijse be:te deres guberneur her Rudven all lydno och hörsamheett uthij altt det han dem till Kong. M:tz och Sveriges chrones gagn och besthe bindendhes och befalendhes vardher. Till vissso medh egen handh undherschreffvedt och medh mitt signet förseglatt. Actum elbingen den 9 martii anno 1630.” Axel Oxenstierna to Patrick Ruthven, Elbing 9 March 1630.[RAOSB, V] “Memorial för öfversten Rödven att bestella i Memel. 1.Nähr han dijtt kommer och hafver aff öfverste Baner anammedt festningen och lathedt sig tillinventera altt förråded så i ammunition som victualie, skall han bestella vachtterne ded flitigste och besthe han kan, och hafve en noga och flitig upsyn, at ingen slipper in I festningen uthan den han enkaligen kenner, och ju ingen så stark, att han den ju kan rådha; så att festningen altidh holles Kong. M:tt och Sveriges chrona till trogen handha. 2.Borgerskapedt i stadhen skall han maintinera vedh deras privilegier och rättigheter uthan någon perturbation eller intrång till vijdhere beskedh och order ifrån Kong. M:tt. 3.Landed skall han medh de besthe ordh han kan uppeholla att de icke heeltt despererar, loffvendhes dem undsettning, och så snarrt rytterne ähro sin kos, att stella godh order. 4.Och efter nu fuller ett iblandh de störste besvär blifver att skaffva rytterne sin koos, nähr den tijdhen kommer, därtill aff nödhen ähr näst skepen: haffra, höö, bräder och vijrke till att förbygge skepen medh, därföre skall öfversten Rödven förfara, hvarest han kan få nödtorfftigtt hö;o till Rijngreffvens och Hunekens rytter, och så så mykedt virke i stolpar och brädhen, som behöffves till att förbyggia 38 eller 40 skep medh, och att ded motte vara i förrådh till min vijdhare anordning. 5.Om nu någon haffra vore att upköpa i Churlandh för gott köp, därom må han göra sin flijtt, icke att contrahera, men att försökie och mig veta låtha, serdeles där han sig 100 lester kundhe förveta hos någon borgare i Memel, som dem optaga kundhe i Libaw. 6.Om någott råkar fela i min anordning till soldaterne, skall han göra all sin flijtt att bringatt up hos borgarne eller eliest, så länge att undsettning aff mig kan komma. 7.Hvadh som passerar, ded skall han idkeligen advisera. Actum Elbingen den 9 martii anno 1630.”
Sources: Riksarkivets ämnessamlingar. Personhistoria https://sok.riksarkivet.se/bildvisning/A0070111_00034#?c=&m=&s=&cv=33&xywh=515%2C168%2C5725%2C3302
Letters from and about his widow can be found here: https://sok.riksarkivet.se/bildvisning/A0070111_00046#?c=&m=&s=&cv=45&xywh=797%2C31%2C5722%2C3300
R. Monro, His Expedition with a worthy Scots Regiment called Mac-Keyes (2 vols., London, 1637), II, The List of the Scottish Officers in Chiefe, list 1; The Swedish Intelligencer: The Second Part (London, 1632), pp.139, 173, 176-180; The Swedish Intelligencer: The Third Part (London, 1633), pp.33, 35, 64; The Swedish Inteligencer: The Fourth Part (London, 1633), p.52; The Continuation of the German History: The Fifth Part (London, 1633), p.37; Swedish Krigsarkiv, Muster Roll, 1622/2-4; 1623/4; 1624/6; 1626/1,5,7-11; 1627/8,9,11,12,14; 1628/4,9-11,13; 1629/6,7,9,10,12,13-15,18-20; 1630/22-29; 1631/12,15-21; 1632/10-21; Swedish Krigsarkiv and Swedish Riksarkiv, Militieräkenskaper 1537-1619, 1615; Swedish Riksarkiv, de la Gardiesamlingen, E1501, Patrick More to Magnus de la Gardie, Buxtehude, 26 February 1652; Swedish Riksarkiv, Kungl. Maj. Brev till landshövding i Kalmar, Stockholm 21/08/1669; Swedish Riksarkiv, Latin registratur 1606-1609, fol. 76r; Swedish Riksarkiv, Svenske Sändebuds till Utländske Hof och Deras Sändebud till Sverige, (unpublished manuscript, 1841), p.84; Swedish Riksarkiv, P. Sondén, Militärachefer i svenska arméen och deras skrivelser; Swedish Riksarkiv, Strödda militiehandlingar före 1631, Armen; Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och brefvexling, first series, III, pp.400, 420, 531, 761-3; ibid, first series, IV, pp.318, 320, 321, 328, 330, 331, 353, 354, 392, 450, 457, 458, 499, 513, 556, 558, 559, 564, 573, 574, 575, 585, 586, 589, 591-2; ibid, first series, V, pp.26, 153, 154, 155, 164, 166, 176, 183, 348, 412; ibid, first series, VI, 192, 194, 323, 337, 338, 415, 426, 592, 593; ibid, first series, VII, pp.27, 73, 325, 344-5, 767 and ibid, second series, IX, pp.355-400 and passim; National Archives of Scotland (NAS), NRAS 2177, Bundle 1404, Borthwick to Hamilton, 3 July 1637; NAS GD16/34/12 Letters and Papers of Lt. General Sir Patrick Ruthven; DNB; T. Fischer, The Scots in Germany, (Edinburgh, 1902); T. Fischer, The Scots in Sweden (Edinburgh, 1907), pp.215-267; G.E. Cockayne, The Complete Peerage, (London, 1912), II, p.299; G. Arteus, Till Militärstatens Förhistoria: Krig, professionalisering och social förändring under Vasasönernas regering (Stockholm, 1986), p.179; F. Rudelius, 'Kalmar Regementes Chefer, 1623-1907' in Personhistorisk Tidskrift, vol. 9, 1907, appendix, pp.1-4; F. Rudelius, 'Kalmar Regementes Personhistoria 1623-1927 (2 vols., Norrköping, 1952) I, pp.5-22; S. Strömbom, ed. Index över svenska porträtt 1500-1850 i svenska porträttarkivets smalingen, 2 vols.(Stockholm, 1935, 1939), vol 2, p.701; Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon, XXX, pp.770-774; Svenska Män och Kvinnor (8 vols., Stockholm, 1942-1955), VI, p.416; T. Pennant, A Tour in Scotland MDCCLXIX, (Warrington, 1774), 3rd. ed., p.62; L. Bittner and L. Gross, Reportorium der diplomatischen vertreter aller lander, vol. 1, 1648-1715 (Oldenburg and Berlin, 1936), p.198; H.O. Prytz, Historiska Upplysningar om svenska och norska armeernas regementer och kårer jemte flottorna, II, (Stockholm, 1868), pp.432-434; Skokloster Slott, 1623 painting of Ruthven by Georg Günter Kraill, Inventory No. 2258; R. Hutton, Charles the Second: King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (Oxford, 1989), pp. 7 – 13; National Library of Scotland (NLS), Gray.720(2), N. Butter and N. Bourne, April 14. Numb. 18. The Continuation of our Forraine Avisoes...(London, 1632); J. Malcolm, The Parish of Monifieth in Ancient and Modern Times (Edinburgh, 1910), pp.67–68, 149–151; M.C.Fissel, The Bishops' Wars: Charles I's Campaigns against Scotland, 1638-1640 (CUP, 1994), pp.40-41; Steve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), pp.41, 57-58, 68, 101-102, 272, 274. William Dun Macray,The Ruthven Correspondence,(London, 1868) p.1; Steve Murdoch and Alexia Grosjean, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish Generals of the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 (London, 2014).
This biography has been updated with the help of Dr Aaron Allen, Dr Bernd Warlich and François-Pierre Goy. They have variously supplied information from Oskar LEISTIKOW, Obrist Sperreuth. Ein schwedischer, kaiserlicher und venetianischer Söldnerführer (Neustadt/Aisch 1968), p. 27; Wilhelm JESSE, Mecklenburg und der Prager Friede 1635, in: Jahrbücher des Vereins für Mecklenburgische Geschichte und Altertumskunde tom. 76 (1911), pp. 161-282, here p. 267 (www.dlib.uni-rostock.de/servlets); The MDSZ database http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php and sources in Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin
Bishops Wars; English Civil War; British Civil Wars
- SWEDEN, SCOTLAND, SWEDEN
- Arrived 1600-01-01, as OFFICER
- Departed 1608-12-31, as OFFICER
- Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, SAMUEL COCKBURN'S REGIMENT
- Arrived 1609-01-01, as OFFICER
- Departed 1621-12-31, as OFFICER
- Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, PSKOV, PILLAU
- Arrived 1616-01-01, as GOVERNOR
- Departed 1616-12-31, as GOVERNOR
- Capacity GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, SKARABORG REGIMENT
- Arrived 1621-01-01, as COLONEL
- Departed 1621-12-31, as COLONEL
- Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, SMALAND REGIMENT AT RIGA
- Arrived 1622-01-01, as COLONEL
- Departed 1622-12-31, as COLONEL
- Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, KALMAR REGIMENT
- Arrived 1623-01-01, as COLONEL IN CHIEF
- Departed 1627-12-31, as COLONEL IN CHIEF
- Capacity COMMANDER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, MARIENBURG
- Arrived 1626-01-01, as COMMANDANT
- Departed 1629-06-20, as COMMANDANT
- Capacity OFFICER AND COMMANDANT, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, ELBING
- Arrived 1629-06-24, as GOVERNOR
- Departed 1629-12-31, as GOVERNOR
- Capacity OFFICER AND GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, MEMEL
- Arrived 1630-01-01, as GOVERNOR
- Departed 1632-12-31, as GOVERNOR
- Capacity GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, ULM
- Arrived 1632-01-01, as GOVERNOR
- Departed 1632-12-31, as GOVERNOR
- Capacity GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, AUGSBURG, SCWABEN
- Arrived 1632-01-01, as MAJOR-GENERAL
- Departed 1633-10-24, as MAJOR-GENERAL
- Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
- SWEDEN, LONDON, THE HAGUE, PARIS
- Arrived 1634-01-01, as MAJOR-GENERAL
- Departed 1635-10-31, as LIEUTENANT-GENERAL
- Capacity ENVOY, purpose DIPLOMACY
- SWEDEN, STOCKHOLM
- Arrived 1636-01-01, as LIEUTENANT GENERAL
- Departed 1637-07-03, as LIEUTENANT GENERAL
- Capacity OFFICER, DIPLOMAT, purpose MILITARY, DIPLOMACY
- STUART KINGDOM, SCOTLAND and ENGLAND EDGEHILL
- Arrived 1637-08-01, as GOVERNOR OF EDINBURGH CASTLE
- Departed 1644-12-31
- Capacity LORD GENERAL OF ROYALIST FORCES in ENGLAND, purpose MILITARY
- STUART KINGDOMS, FRANCE
- Arrived 1646-01-01
- Departed 1649-12-31
- Capacity CHAMBERLAIN, purpose CIVIL SERVICE
- SCOTLAND, STUART KINGDOMS, SWEDEN, STOCKHOLM
- Arrived 1649-04-01
- Capacity AMBASSADOR, purpose DIPLOMACY
- SCOTLAND, SCOTLAND
- Arrived 1650-01-01
- Departed 1650-12-31
- Capacity KING'S ATTENDANT, purpose ROYAL SERVANT
- STUART KINGDOMS, SCOTLAND, BUXTEHUDE
- Departed 1651-02-26
- Capacity ROYALIST ENVOY, purpose DIPLOMACY