KING, JAMES [SSNE 2814]

Surname
KING, DER VERBLEIBENDE
First name
JAMES
Title/rank
LORD EYTHIN
Nationality
SCOT
Region
ORKNEY and ABERDEENSHIRE
Social status
NOBILITY
Religion
CATHOLIC ?

Text source

James King, Baron Eythin in Scotland and Baron Sandshult in Sweden (1589-1652) was the son of David King of Warbester in Orkney, although the old DNB erroneously has his father as James King of Barracht. King entered Swedish service at the age of 20, and was eventually joined in Sweden by his brothers, Major David King [SSNE 2812] and John King [SSNE 1628] of Warbester. Their cousin, Colonel James King [SSNE 2815] of the Barra family, also joined them. The first ten years of his service are not well documented but by 1619 James King served in the Småland regiment commanded by fellow Scotsman Alexander Leslie [SSNE 1], future Earl of Leven. 

After several years as a junior officer, King eventually gained promotion and served as a captain in Patrick Ruthven's [SSNE 3413] Scottish regiment in 1622. He was clearly delighted by his promotion and had his portrait painted the following year. The original can still be seen painted directly onto the wall in Skokloster Castle, Sweden. His promotion to captain signalled the start of the influential part of King's military service. His elevation through the ranks continued and 1624 saw him become a major in Otto von Scheiding's regiment. From 1626 to 1630, King returned to the Scottish regiments where served as a lieutenant colonel to David Drummond [SSNE 2396] and Patrick Ruthven. However, he did not stay with his countrymen for long. The famous diarist of the Scottish military involvement with Scandinavia, Colonel Robert Monro [SSNE 94], listed King as general-major and colonel of the Dutch (German) cavalry and infantry in Swedish service by 1632. After the death of Gustav II Adolf of Sweden, King departed from purely military affairs when he was appointed as Governor of Vlotho, a garrison town on the banks of the river Weser. The following year he undertook a similar commission as colonel in the city of Thuw in the Bishopric of Bremen. 

In January 1633 Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna authorised a land donation for King in Schleinstatt, Halberstatt. It was while stationed here that King joined the German political and literary society Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft under the name of Der Verbleibende. On 13 June 1633 (by order of Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar) King quartered with 12 companies in Schmalkalden (Thuringia) and the surrounding villages belonging to that town. His soldiers apparently extorted much money from the burgesses, and at night they are said to have broken into houses and stole beasts. Their stay of only 24 days cost some 11,919 riksdaler. General Baner ordered King to take three regiments the town of Holdesheim in Brunswick in March 1634 after Knipehausen gave up his charge in the area. However, all did not bode well for the King family. James' brother, Major David King, died in 1634 at the catastrophic Swedish defeat at Nordlingen. Despite this loss, King remained active in the Swedish army. After the Peace of Prague in 1635, King continued as a prominent field commander reaching the rank of major general certainly by August 1635. It was his force that proved decisive at the Battle of Wittstock in September 1636 after he managed to achieve a flanking movement through the woods that allowed for an encirclement of the John-George of Saxon's army. King's dedication to the Protestant cause in Europe, however, received several harsh blows. One of these occurred while he commanded a Swedish army at Münster in 1638 (possibly the Army of the Weser). There King received orders from Johan Banér to add his forces to those of Prince Rupert and the Count Palatine, the nephews of Charles I. Among these forces were those of the Englishman, William Lord Craven [SSNE 1339]. They were defeated at the battle of Lemgo, near Minden (Vlotho Bridge). But for his part, King is accredited with orchestrating the orderly withdrawal of the only portion of the army not to be routed. Throughout the remainder of October and November, Charles Louis and his remnant forces remained under King's protection in Minden. King frequently corresponded with Axel Oxenstierna about how he was both to treat the Elector and his soldiers. But the presence of the Count Palatine cased rumours that King was more loyal to the Palatine cause than to Sweden. This was refuted by Oxenstierna in the Swedish state council, but relations were souring. Nevertheless,  in June 1639 Thomas Roe could report from Hamburg that James King led his forces, in combination with those of Charles Louis, in an action against the Imperial forces around Duderstat. They captured Colonel Epp, two lieutenant colonels. 5 routmasters, 10 lieutenants, three cornetts and 373 horsemen.

In recognition for his services from the Swedes by being rewarded (some sources say knighted) in 1639 along with his final decommissioning. Many sources say that King was ordered to leave Sweden by Charles I in January 1640. However, the Swedish Riksråd (State Council) records show that King said he wished to depart before that since he did not want to serve in the army without his former field commander, Alexander Leslie. Indeed this was the very man he was supposed to be returning to Scotland to fight. Like many Scottish officers, King sought compensation for the wage arrears that were still owed to him by the Swedes. On 20 February 1639 the treasury agreed to pay King 4000 riksdaler. The Riksråd agreed that since he had served the Swedish Crown for 26 years, the outstanding money should be paid to him along with his pension of 1,200 riksdalers per annum. They also argued that this gesture would ensure the continued support of the Scots for Sweden and their designs against Denmark-Norway and the Habsburg Empire. This is an interesting reference since James King is traditionally viewed as having been a staunch Royalist at this period. Yet the Swedish sources seems to add weight to the theory that King was, perhaps, more inclined to his native country during the Bishops' Wars (1638-1640) than previously believed. After all the Scottish Covenanters were pressing a Protestant ideal far closer to King's heart than the Ecclesiastical reforms pressed by Charles I. 

On his departure from Sweden, James King took up residence in Hamburg. It is interesting to note that he chose not to return to Scotland to fight his former commanding officer, Alexander Leslie, but instead chose to sit out the war in Hamburg. He is certainly accredited with having prosecuted the Royalist cause from there although the degree to which he actually wanted to see the Scots defeated is questionable. In a letter dated 28 June 1639 from Hamburg, he signed a testimonial along with his kinsman Colonel James King that arms bought by Sir Thomas Roe [SSNE 4421] were fit for Charles I's service. These guns were, in fact, found to be in such poor condition that they had to be returned to Hamburg. Whether there is any link in the fact that all the signatories to the proofing letter were Scotsmen will remain a matter of conjecture. James King returned briefly to Britain to be allocated a pension by Charles I of £1,000. However he was soon dispatched to Hamburg with orders to build an army of trained officers and soldiers that he was expected to lead home to fight the Scottish Covenanters (John Durie observed he left the city in April 1640). Rumours circulated that the English Lord Treasurer had been instructed to issue King with £50,000 to purchase arms from Christian IV of Denmark-Norway, but apparently no merchant could be found to make up this money. Apparently undaunted by his lack of funds, King pressured Christian IV to secure 3,000 Danish cavalry for use against the Covenanters. His requests were ultimately to no avail. Instead Christian IV ordered his Foreign Secretary, Frederik Gunther, to divert horses destined for Spanish service to England. Christian IV expressed his willingness to help Charles but asked for a written proposal that James King said he could not comply with for secrecy's sake. In truth the matter in hand was one which King, as the son of an Orkneyman and member of the Swedish nobility, must have felt quite strongly about. Christian IV had issued his ambassadors with a letter requesting a private audience with Charles I. At that meeting the Danes were to discuss the conditions by which Christian IV would take possession of the Orkney and Shetland Islands as their price for Danish assistance to the Stuart cause. The idea that King would have been pleased to see his families home islands given away to the enemy of the country he had served most of his life is hard to believe. The improbability becomes clearer when we remember that James King's father had been sheriff depute for Earl Patrick Stewart, the cousin of his wife Mary. Stewart had conducted what amounted to a private war against Christian IV due to Danish attacks on Orkney shipping. Charles did not reject his uncle's offer out of hand. Indeed, a letter survives which shows that he tried to pawn the Northern Isles to Christian IV for 50,000 gold guilders. The plan fell through because Christian IV claimed that Charles had overvalued the Islands and no more has been found on King's role in the negotiations. 

On returning to Scotland in 1641, King faced charges relating to his alleged unpatriotic behaviour in Denmark during the Bishops' Wars. However, in November, the Scottish Parliament found that there were no grounds for the charges and King was declared to have been a good patriot. This again suggests that King had not prosecuted Charles I's business as well as he might have. While in Scotland King maintained his Scandinavian connection, writing to the Swedish chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna, mentioning hopes for continued good relations between the Swedish and British monarchies. He also published a declaration regarding Danish negotiations with the Empire which the Swedish and Scottish governments found suspicious. After his short spell at home he returned to Hamburg to raise money in preparation for the looming hostilities in England. James King landed in England in 1642 but without the Danish or German troops the Royalists hoped for. Indeed, contemporary sources recorded that he only arrived with between 60-80 officers. The following year, King became second in command of the northern Royalist army under the Marquis of Newcastle. He was also created Lord Eythin and Kerrey by Charles I, the former name coming from the river in Aberdeenshire. Between 1643 and 1647 King moved further to the Royalist camp along with former Covenanters like James Graham [SSNE 1523], the Marquis of Montrose and Sir John Cochrane [SSNE 1490], the former Covenanter ambassador to Denmark-Norway and Sweden. Cochrane's conversion in particular owed much to his meetings in Hamburg with King who described him to Charles I as "an auld acquaintance and countryman of mine" to Charles I. James King maintained his correspondence with Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna during this period, writing to him in German, usually from Hamburg. He was also motivated by the lack of receipt of his outstanding pay arrears - in November 1642 the Swedish treasury discussed this issue. While King had not become involved in the fighting during the Bishops' Wars, he took a very active part in the English wars. He commanded the Royalist centre at the battle of Marston Moor on 2 July 1644 and was forfeited by the Scottish Parliament by the end of the month. He arrived in Hamburg with about 80 other officers with the Marquis of Newcastle on 8 July, including a fellow veteran of Swedish service, Colonel William Vavasour [SSNE 3752]. With the ever deteriorating fortunes of the Royalist army, unjust criticism from Prince Rupert and accusations by many Englishmen that he was too pro-Scottish, King decided to return to Sweden by the end of the year. On his arrival he was giften the barony of Sandshult in Kalmar with a pension of 1,800 riksdalers per annum. But James King still had friends in Scotland. When the moderate Engager party gained control of the Scottish government in 1647, his forfeiture was rescinded. This process ended with the Scottish Parliament sending letters in his favour to both Queen Kristina of Sweden and the City of Hamburg. King was in Germany again in 1647, as he sent a letter dated Bremen 28 June to Oxenstierna telling the Chancellor that as peace had been achieved in Scotland the Swedes could once again recruit troops in that kingdom.

The execution of Charles I in 1649 caused widespread revulsion across Europe. The new king, Charles II, sent orders to the two Scottish Generals, Sir James King and Sir Patrick Ruthven, to petition Queen Kristina for military aid in support of the military campaign being planned by the Marquis of Montrose. King had received an invitation from Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna to attend Anna Bååth’s funeral which he could not attend. King responded to the Chancellor in December 1649 stating that he felt Oxenstierna was more up-to-date on the British developments than he was, although he included a copy of a Latin book about the "Scottish" situation promising to send him more if he received them. James King received a commission to become lieutenant general under Montrose in 1650 and he was expected to command the major force destined for Scotland from Scandinavia. Both King and Montrose had family connections in Orkney and it was hoped that they could use these to raise support for the Royalist army. At the end of December 1649, 200 soldiers set off for Orkney under the command of Major David Guthrie [SSNE 319] to secure a base for a larger landing. They carried with them 12 pieces of artillery and a quantity of arms and ammunition for forces to be levied in Scotland. Unbeknown to the small army that left Orkney for the Scottish mainland, the ships that were destined to take the second wave of soldiers from Sweden, Denmark-Norway and northern Germany had been recalled by Charles II. He had struck a deal with the new hard line regime in Scotland. That deal set up Montrose as the sacrificial lamb to be slaughtered as the price of Charles II's kingdom. His army was routed at Carbisdale and Montrose was executed in Edinburgh soon after. Perhaps King was lucky that he had been destined to lead the second wave. However, he became alienated from the king whom he believed had betrayed Montrose and his supporters. He did undertake negotiations to bring Charles II to Sweden but the Stuart king perhaps wisely decided to remain elsewhere. Apart from their treatment of Montrose, the Scottish government proved quite lenient. Indeed, an act in favour of James King can be found in The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland from 1651. 

As for James King himself, he remained in Sweden and therefore avoided capture. According to one source in 1650 a lieutenant-general "Joh. King" (we believe erroneously transcribed for Jakob) purchased a house in Stockholm on Riddargatan in the area called Jernlodet.  He died only two years later in Stockholm on 9 June 1652 after which he received a public burial in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church, burial place of the Swedish kings, on 18 July. His funeral arms and tomb are now lost. Scotland had lost a patriot, Sweden an excellent field officer and the House of Stuart an important, if cautious, supporter. 

James King's first wife, Diliana van der Borchens of Pomerania, died without any children. His second wife's name is unknown, but with her he had a daughter who pre-deceased him. John Durie mentions the birth of this child in Hamburg in a letter dated July 1640. Durie alerted King to the fact that his wife had asked the queens of Great Britain and Sweden to be Godmothers to this child, but alerted the King of a variety of problems this might causeFrom his will we know that James left the majority of his goods to his brother John and sister Barbara [SSNE 6923]. James King's nephews, the sons of John King, both remained in Swedish service. James [SSNE 2816] served as a page to King Carl X and became a naturalised Swedish nobleman in 1672, along with his brother Henry [SSNE 4789]. Colonel James King died in March 1651 but his sons, Hans and Jacob King, also remained in Swedish service. In his will written in 1646, General James King had earmarked his estates for his brother John and his family. However, his large investment into the Montrosian campaign two years later had left him penniless. James King had not only used his resources to pay for Royalist weapons, but he had also lent Charles I £40,000. Neither this money nor his £1,000 pension was ever paid to him. In Scotland, a creditor, Thomas Watson, took over administration of his estate. In Sweden, his property had to be sold to the Scottish commander Field Marshall Robert Douglas and the money raised used to pay some of his debts. The family never recovered from this burden. Indeed Henry and his mother received money from Karl XI in 1684 to relieve their destitution. Thereafter the family faded into obscurity, victims of circumstances beyond their control. These events left a Swedish King compensating for debts that should have been repaid by an ungrateful House of Stuart to a patriotic Scottish family. There is a portrait of James King at Skokloster castle, commissioned by General Carl Gustav Wrangel in 1623. 

 

Sources: 

Riksarkivets ämnessamlingar. Personhistoria https://sok.riksarkivet.se/bildvisning/A0069774_00038#?c=&m=&s=&cv=37&xywh=917%2C138%2C6541%2C3772

 

He is mentioned and signed in correspondence concerning Lieutenant Andrew Ross [SSNE 3376] in: https://sok.riksarkivet.se/bildvisning/A0070104_00387#?c=&m=&s=&cv=386&xywh=2989%2C1274%2C2842%2C1639

On 12 November 1651, King signed a receipt in Stockholm. His signature reveals a very unsteady hand. See Krigsarkiv Stockholm, Karl Viggo Key Arkiv (unfoliated), Lord Eythin, 12 November 1651.

See also: Axel Oxenstierna’s authorisation of a land donation for James King, 12 January 1633. [RAOSB, VIII] “Demnach I. Excellentz angemercket die unnterthenigste erspriessliche krigsdiensteso I. K. M., unnserm weylandt allergnedigisten, nuhnmehr aber inn Gott höchstseehedle, veste und manhaffte Jacob King etc. numehr eine geraume zeit hero geleistet und erwissen, auch ins khünfftige höchstseehligster I.K.M. leibeserbin und der cron er und seine erben zu thuen und zu leisten anerbietig ist, alss haben sie ihm craft habenden generallegatsampts dass gutt und ampt Schleinstatt, im stifft Halberstatt belegen, zusampt den untergehörigendorff- unnd bauerschafften, inngleichen allen pertinentien recht an- und zugehorungen, wie die immer nahmen haben mögen, nuchts aussgenommen, allermassen solches die vorigen possessors besessen, genutzet und gebrauchet, I.K.M. aber, glorwürdigsten angedenckens, durch Gottes gnädige verleihung iure belli an sich gebracht, zu einer ergetzligkeit conferiret und geschencket, conferiren und schenckhen auch hiermit und in craft disses ihme Jacob King, seinen erben und nachkhommen obbemeltes gutt und ampt Schleinstadt zusampt den undergehorigen dorff- und bauerschafften, auch allen andern an- und zubehörungen, dergestalt und alsso, dass er selbige alss ein gnadengeschenckh inn schuldiger danckhbarkeit annehmen, hinfüro erb- und aigetnhumblich besitzen und gniessen, gebrauchen unndt hochstseehligster I.K.M. leibeserbin und der cron Scweden desswegen getreu und gewertig sein sole, wie er sich hierzu inn einem aussgeferttigten specialrevers mit mehrerm verpflichtet gemacht. Gestalt dann Ihr Excellentz ihn Jacob King auch hiemit alsforth in possess der obgesetzten güetter würcklich immittiren und darauff alle und jede nach standts erheischung gebürendt ersuchen, den koniglichen hohen und nidern officiren, auch soldatesque zu ross und fuess insgemein und sonst allen angehorigen hiemitt anbefehlen, dass sie mehrgemelten Jacob King, seine erben und nachkommen inn solchen güttern im geringsten nicht turbiren noch beleidigen, sondern vilmehr wider allen gewalt und thätigkheiten, so von einem oder andern ihm hierüber zugemuttet warden möchten, gebürlich maniterniren und schutzen helffen. Uhrkhundlich mitt Ihr Excellentz eigenhändigen subscription und fürgetruckhten secret bekrefftiget. Datum Hall den zwelfften januarii anno ein daussent sechshundert und drey und dreyssig” 

See also: Swedish Krigsarkiv, Muster Roll, 1619/11; 1622/2,4; 1623/4; 1624/6; 1626/1,11; 1627/8,9,11,12,14; 1628/4,10; 1629/10,12,13,15,17; 1630/9,14; 1631/6,23-27; 1632/24; 1636/1,2; 1638/4; R. Monro, His Expedition with a worthy Scots Regiment called Mac-Keyes (2 vols., London, 1637), II, The List of the Scottish Officers in Chiefe, list 1; The History of the present Warres of Germany: A Sixth Part (London, 1634), p.168; Swedish Riksarkiv, P. Sondén, Militärachefer i svenska arméen och deras skrivelser; F. Rudelius, 'Kalmar Regementes Personhistoria 1623-1927 (2 vols., Norrköping, 1952) I, pp.5-22; J. Balfour Paul and R. Douglas, The Scots Peerage, (9 vols., Edinburgh, 1904-1914), III, pp.590-593; G. E. Cockayne, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, (12 vols., London, 1910-1959), V, pp. 227-228; K. Connermann, Die Mitglieder der Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft 1617-1650 (Wienheim, 1985), pp.239-240; S. Hedar, Kammarkollegiets Protokoll med bilagor, I (Stockholm, 1934), p.137; S. Hedar, Kammarkollegiets Protokoll med bilagor, III(Stockholm, 1941), pp.439-40; Danish Rigsarkiv TKUA England A1 3. King's creditive to Christian IV from Charles I, dated July 1640; National Archives of Scotland GD 406/1/1146 and 1147. Sir James King to the Marquis of Hamilton, 19 July 1640; Public Records Office, London, SP 81/47, f.102, 'Certificate of General King upon arms sent to England', 28 June 1639; The Natiaonal Archives London, London, SP75/15 f.475. General James King to Charles 1, 24 October 1640; SP 75/16, ff.87 and 89. Averie to Vane, 10/20 and 17/27 September 1641; SP 81/43-50; SP 81/47, f.107; Swedish Riksarkiv, Anglica 517. Charles II to Queen Christina, 28 May 1649; Swedish Riksarkiv, Carl Gustaf's Arkiv i Stegeborgssamlingen, 8 letters from King, Hamburg and Stockholm, 1648-1650; Swedish Riksarkiv, Axel Oxenstiernas Brefvexling, E636 and E959; British Library, Thomason Tract E.549 (22), Declaration of the Committee of Estates of the Parliament of Scotland in vindication of their proceedings from the aspersions of a scandelous pamphlet published by that excommunicate traytor James Grahame (Edinburgh, January 1650). Hartlib Papers, 14/4/60A-61B. Sir Thomas Roe to Samuel Hartlib, Hamburg, 28 June 1639, Hartlib Papers 2/2/11A-B. John Durie to Samuel Hartlib, 14 April 1640 and 2/12/28A-29B. Durie to James King, 10 July 1640. 

Printed primary sources, The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, (12 vols., London, 1814-1875), VI, p.606; C. F. Brika and J. A. Frederica, et al., (eds.), Kong Christian den Fjerdes egenhaendige Breve, (8 vols., Copenhagen, 1878-1947), IV, pp.300-301, 358, 361, 368, 378, 395; V, pp.256-257; V, 398-399; VIII, p.219; CSPD, 1640, pp.365 and 450; CSPD, 1650, p.158; N.A. Kullberg, et. al., (eds.), Svenska Riksrådets Protokoll, 1621-1658, (vols. 1-18, Stockholm, 1878-1959), VIII, p.551; S. Strömbom, ed. Index över svenska porträtt 1500-1850 i svenska porträttarkivets samlingen, (2 vols., Stockholm, 1935, 1939), I, p.429; Other important sources, S.R. Gardiner, (ed.) Letters and papers illustrating the relations betweeen Charles the second and Scotland in 1650, (Edinburgh, 1894), p.10. Letter from Bremen, 9/19 February 1649/50; D. Laing (ed.), The letters and journals of Robert Baillie, principal of the university of Glasgow, (3 vols., London, 1844), I, pp.269-270; ibid, II, pp.80 and 105; Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas Skrifter och Brefvexling, first series, VIII, p.256; ibid, IX, pp. 958-9; J. Spalding, Memorialls of the trubles in Scotland and in England ad 1624-ad 1645, (2 vols., 1828-1829) II, pp.99, 108, 168-169; Rev. G. Wishart, The memoirs of James Marquis of Montrose 1639-1650, translated and edited by Rev. A. Murdoch and H.F. Morland Simpson, (London, 1893), p.273; A. Baker, A battlefield atlas of the English Civil War (Leicester, 1986), pp.60-67; J. A. Fridericia, Danmarks ydre politiske historie i tider fra freden i Prag till freden i Brömsebro, 1629-1645, (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1972 reprint), II, pp.316; S. Curman and J. Roosval, eds. Riddarholmskyrkan: Sveriges Kyrkor, Stockholms Kyrkor, II (Stockholm, 1937), p.655,657; H. Marryat, One Year in Sweden including a visit to the Isle of Gotland, (2 vols., London, 1862), p.490; P. Young, Marston Moor 1644: The Campaign and the Battle (Kinneton, 1970), passim an p.176. List of Newcastle's companions arriving in Hamburg 8 July 1644. Steve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), pp.41, 44-48, 66, 72, 74-75, 289, 303, 309, 356-357, 369-373; Thanks also to Dr Bernd Warlich for the following reference and information drawn from it: Johann Georg PFORR, Beschreibung etzlicher denckwuerdigen Geschichden. Eine Chronik von Schmalkalden 1400-1800, ed. by Renate T. Wagner, (Schmalkalden 2007), p. 121; See also the MDSZ database http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php  See also F.U. Wrangel, Stockholmiana I-IV (Stockholm, 1912), p.208.

 

FG Poem (Translated from German by Dr Kathrin Zickermann): A kind [of plant] from Spain, the White Ox Tongue are found here with us, which our rhymes have not sung about. Although the bloom is gone it remains still green, enduring therefore, people gave me the name throughout the year; One should remain endurable throughout one's whole life time, and not quarrel with anybody; then will one remain honoured by everybody this then is the right fruit, which is therefore valued.

 

See also: National Archives of Scotland

GD106/119 
TitlePower of Factory by General Major James King in favour of Col. Wm. Bailzie, Wm. Sinclair of Saba, his brother, Mr James King, Advocate, and Jas. Lesly, merchant burgess of Edinr., relating to his affairs, and in particular to the sum of 30,000 merks owing to him by Wm. Dick of Braid, Merchant burgess of Edinr
Dates6 Aug 1635

Bishops Wars; English Civil War

Service record

SWEDEN, ALEXANDER LESLIE
Arrived 1609-01-01, as ENSIGN
Departed 1621-12-31, as ENSIGN
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, PATRICK RUTHVEN
Arrived 1622-01-01, as CAPTAIN
Departed 1626-12-31, as MAJOR
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, DAVID DRUMMOND
Arrived 1627-01-01, as MAJOR
Departed 1638-12-31, as LIEUTENANT GENERAL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, STARGARD
Arrived 1631-01-01, as COMMANDANT
Departed 1631-12-31, as COMMANDANT
Capacity OFFICER AND COMMANDANT, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, ARMY OF THE WESER
Arrived 1636-01-01, as LIEUTENANT GENERAL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, VLOTHO
Arrived 1637-01-01, as COMMANDANT
Departed 1637-12-31, as COMMANDANT
Capacity GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
STUART KINGDOMS, HAMBURG
Arrived 1639-01-01
Departed 1641-12-31
Capacity DIPLOMAT, purpose DILOMACY
STUART KINGDOMS, ROYALIST ARMY, MARSTON MOOR
Arrived 1643-01-01, as LIEUTENTANT GENERAL
Departed 1644-07-02, as LIEUTENANT GENERAL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
STUART KINGDOMS, HAMBURG, STOCKHOLM
Arrived 1648-01-01, as GENERAL
Departed 1651-03-31, as GENERAL
Capacity MILITARY AND DIPLOMAT, purpose MILITARY AND DIPLOMACY