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Prof Andy Gardner

Prof Andy Gardner


Researcher profile

+44 (0)1334 463385


Research areas

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest ? gene, individual, society ? and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans. Visit my webpage at for more information.

PhD supervision

  • Thomas Hitchcock

Selected publications


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