Charles Baily

I am a Lecturer in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK.


School of Physics and Astronomy
University of St Andrews
The North Haugh
St Andrews, Fife
KY16 9SS

E-mail: crb6 "at"


My focus is on curriculum development and investigating student learning in courses beyond the introductory level (specifically, modern physics and electrodynamics). I am also interested in the historical development of quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory. Before coming to St Andrews in 2013, I was a long-time member of the Physics Education Research group at the University of Colorado Boulder.


Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical (PhD Dissertation, Spring 2011)
An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction.

Abstract: A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) can positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.
Writeup in Physics Buzz (Physics Central, APS website; Feb. 13, 2012)
Course Materials
Modern Physics course materials website
Contact: Charles Baily via crb6 "at" for access to password-protected links.
Advanced Undergraduate Electrodynamics course materials and assessments website
Contact: Charles Baily via crb6 "at" or Steve Pollock via steven.pollock "at" for access to password-protected links.

Link to Google Scholar