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Robert Rhind (intermittently referred to as 'Albrecht' in the sources!) was a Scottish burgess of Stockholm, gaining his status as such on 14 June 1619. Two fellow Scottish burgesses stood as his guarantors: James Maclean [SSNE 5433] and George Kamer. Robert Rhind was possibly a relative of Jeannetta Rhind, wife of Alexander Fife merchant of Montrose, and mother of the several Fife brothers who emigrated to Stockholm. See [SSNE 4779], [SSNE 708], [SSNE 6679] and [SSNE 782], with whom Robert was often .

Jeanetta Rhind was the daughter of William Rhind of Carse and Margaret Ogilvie and she was born in 1550 in Montrose. She was twice married: firstly to Alexander Feif, a goldsmith and merchant of Montrose. With him she had at least three sons, Donal Feif [SSNE ], David Feif [SSNE  ] and James Alexanderson Feif [SSNE ],  all of whom migrated to Stockholm and became successful burgesses of the Swedish capital. She also had other children including Robert Feif and Anna Feif. Her second marriage was to James Simpson, and with him she had at least two children, Robert Simpson and Euphemia Simpson, later Lyall. Jeanette apparently died in Scotland in either 1591 or 1605. The link between Robert Rhind and Jeanetta remains to be clarified.

Robert or Albert?

The Stockholm magistrate records seem to intermittently (between 1621 and 1629) refer to Robert as Albert (Albrecht) Rhind and indeed one reference of 'Albrecht' Rhind standing as guarantor for Englishman John Dixon as he took his burgess oath on 27 June 1629 is corrected to 'Robbort'! Further, that year a royal document seems to confirm that they were the same man: a letter from King Gustav II Adolf, dated January 1628 (see just below), naming Robert Rhind is used by 'Albrecht' when proving his right to own a plot on Skottgränden in 1629, exactly when and where Robert Rhind was intending to build his new house. 'Albrecht' successfully uses this to confirm his ownership of the property! This probably accounts for why there seems to be no record of Albert becoming a burgess and references to Albert (Albrecht) only appear between 1621 and 1629. Similarly, references to Robert only exist for 1619 and then pick up again in December 1628.

In August 1621 Albert (Robert) Rhind appealed to the Stockholm magistrates to release 10 ship pounds of iron bar which had been confiscated. In the record he is listed as a burgess.

Albert (Robert) Rhind and James Feiff [SSNE 4779] stood as guarantors for Thomas Clerck when he took his oath as burgess of Stockholm in August 1622. 'Albert' would have had to be a burgess himself in order to be able to take up this position.

The following year, in January 1623, Albert (Robert) Rhind purchased Pelle Pederson's house on Skottgränden in Gamla Stan. However, in April that year Rhind was having bother from his neighbour, Peder Nilson 'camererer', who was trying to force him out of his house. A dispute arose over who was actually entitled to it. On 30 April Albert (Robert) Rhind approached the Stockholm magistrates seeking confirmation on his ownership of the house he had purchased from Pelle Pederson. He admitted that Peder Nilson had been offered the house two years previously, but that Nilson had only been willing to pay 100 daler for it, claiming it was hardly worthy of keeping chickens in! Indeed, James Feiff recounted that Pelle Pederson had also offered him the house. The magistrates decided in  favour of Albert (Robert) Rhind.

On 23 April 1623 Albert (Robert) Rhind stood as guarantor for Thomas Gibson before the Stockholm magistrates in a case involving 'platmölen' belonging to Thomas' unnamed sister, which had been pawned to 'Donat Zandt'.

Albert (Robert) Rhind was appointed as the collector of the 'tompt öre' (plot tax?) in the 'eastern quarter' (area surrounding Skottgränden) in Gamla Stan on 28 June 1623.

A case was brought against James Ross before the Stockholm magistrates on 17 October 1623 regarding a chest he had removed from a ship without allowing its contents to be inspected. Albert (Robert) Rhind testified that he had seen the chest open, with Ross beside it speaking to Gudmund 'brokikare', revealing its contents. Another man, Hans Harff (probably John Harvey?) confirmed that Rhind's testimony was the truth. Apparently James Ross became involved in a slandering case with Gudmund. 

In June 1624 Albert (Robert) Rhind announced his purchase of a timber-framed booth, on Skottgränden in Gamla Stan. It is listed as next door to his house on the same street. 

The following year in May the Stockholm magistrates note that Albert (Robert) Rhind's house, purchased from Jacob Jonsson, has been offered to his family.

In June 1625 Albert (Robert)Rhind, along with fellow burgess Thomas 'Engelsman' Parker [SSNE ], stand as guarantors for another Englishman John Dixon who took his oath as burgess of Stockholm.

In March 1628 Albert (Robert) Rhind approached the Stockholm magistrates requesting permission to purchase a tower on Bredegränden. This is probably the same tower he requests to purchase, along with the neighbouring plot, in June that year, situated on Hoparegränden. However, in late August he was still waiting for responses to his requests, which the Stockholm magistrates promised would be forthcoming on the next Saturday, following an inspection of the tower. It transpires, in late August, that Claes Jacobson wants to keep the tower (which both Albert (Robert) Rhind and Jacob Barkman want to purchase) as he had owned it for more than 20 years. Nevertheless, Albert (Robert) Rhind is persistent and on 24 November 1628 he again offers to purchase the tower. The magistrates say they will aprise its tax value the next day. On 18 February 1629 Albert Rhind presents a letter from the king (dated 17 January 1628 and clearly stating that the letter concerns ROBERT Rhind [SSNE 6686]!) donating the land which the tower was on 'in the eastern quarter' which Rhind could keep on payment. It was not until 11 April 1629 that Albert (Robert) Rhind finally gets approval to purchase the tower, and the neighbouring plot, on Claes Jacobson's gränd for 500 daler although Rhind is required to tear down the tower. It is likely that he intended to build a new house on the spot. In August that year he complains to the magistrates that he is unable to find a stone mason to build on his plot.

In April 1628 Albert (Robert) Rhind was appointed, along with four other men, to present the burgesses view on royal ordnances regarding brewing of weak and strong beer. In June he was part of a committee chosen to discuss the election of town mayor with the Riksråd.

Albert (Robert) Rhind requested permission from the Stockholm magistrates, in July 1628, to obtain several thousand thin wooden planks for barrel makers to use over the winter months, as he had a purpose in mind for them. At the end of the month some supplies arrived from Gothenburg, and the Stockholm magistrates noted that James Forbes [SSNE 779] was to be forbidden from selling them and instead Albert (Robert) Rhind and Thomas 'Engelsman' Parker were appointed to deal with them.

In August 1628 Albert Rhind (Robert) requests 10 tons/barrels of tar, and this was granted.

Albert (Robert) Rhind, along with Hans Hanson 'cemner', stand as guarantors for Christoffer Smalensee when he takes his oath as burgess of Stockholm in October 1628.

In December 1628 Robert Rhind's name appears, along with James Maclean [SSNE 5433], James Feif [SSNE 4779] and George Gardner [SSNE 7352] and James Forbes [SSNE 779] on a list of the town's burgesses selected to appear before the King, Gustav II Adolf, at a meeting he had ordained for 12 January 1629. This meeting was regarding the establishment of a shipping company, mainly to benefit the Swedish Crown, but in which the founding merchant members would also be able to engage for their own private trade. Initially known as Skeppskompaniet, the enterprise went under various names, including Söderkompaniet and Amerikanska kompaniet, over the ensuing decades.

In February 1629 Robert Rhind presented the Stockholm magistrates King Gustav II Adolf's royal letter awarding Rhind the right to build on a plot "in the east" of Gamla Stan; the letter was dated 17 January 1628 and seem to imply that Rhind had paid all relevant fees and acquired all the necessary wares to begin construction. This is presumably the same plot which in November 1630 Robert Rhind (noted as Robert Trint) 'merchant' is noted as acquiring from Stockholm council, lying to the east beyond the city walls, between Klas Jakobsson's house and Hoparegränden. This is presumably the plot which became Skeppsbron 24, see below.

In August 1633 Robert Rhind's name was mentioned in a case brought before the Stockholm magistrates (Anders brokikare contra William Mercer [SSNE 4923].

Robert Rhind was also a wealthy ship-broker. In June 1639, in an act of charity, Robert Rhind donated 800 daler to the poorhouse of Stockholm, indicating just how wealthy he was. Robert Rhind was presumably fairly aged by then as the entries for 1642 and 1649 are in shakier hand, and the sums declined to 50 and then 30 daler respectively.

In 1643 Robert Rhind appeared as one of the godparents to Albert Scott's [SSNE 7335] daughter, Karin, at her baptism in St Nicholas church, Stockholm, on 24 May. 

Robert Rhind lived at Skeppsbron 24, bordering Stora Hoparegränd and Drakensgränd, Gamla Stan, Stockholm. The building is known to be the first built in the area to follow the urban planning regulations instigated by King Gustav II Adolf following the fire of 1625 and was completed after November 1630. It was architecturally significant in that it was the first to be built in a new style involving differentiated floor levels and facades as well as gables facing not only the front but also along the sides. Sadly, the portal with a plaque commemorating the year of construction and Robert Rhind’s initials only survived until the late-nineteenth century, however, interior elements such as decorated wooden ceiling panels and frescos from Rhind’s time, still survive. Stockholms Stads Museum owns a hand-drawn depiction of the portal and inscription, the latter of which reads: Gods Providense is Myn Inheritense 1630. The building has been subsequently altered, added to and almost torn down during the mid-twentieth century and now is protected as a listed building.

Robert Rhind died by July 1657, and was survived by his widow Karin Evertsdotter. That year an Alexander Fraser from Dundee (married to Robert's niece) put in a claim on Robert's inheritance.

Sources: Stockholm Stadsarkiv: Borgare i Stockholm, Register 1601-1650, p.70; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker 1619, (Stockholm, 1974), p.73; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker, 1620-1621(Stockholm, 1976), p.319; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker, 1622-1623 (Stockholm, 1978), p.68, 118, 147, 149, 168, 438, 468-470; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker, 1624 (Stockholm, 1979), p.87, 90, 291, 298; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker, 1628 (Stockholm, 1998), p.26, 34, 55, 60, 76, 83, 104, 107, 113, 131, 152,170, 308; Stockholmsstads tänke böcker, 1629 (Stockholm, 2000), p. 18, 42, 136-7, 169, 220; Stockholmsstads Tänke Böcker 1633, (Stockholm, 2006), p.181; T. Fischer, The Scots in Sweden, (Edinburgh, 1907), pp.30, 34; T. O. Nordberg, Gamla Stan i Stockholm kulturhistorisk beskrivning hus för hus kvarteren Achilles-Glaucus (Stockholm, 1975), pp.129-133; F.U. Wrangel, Stockholmiana I-IV, (Stockholm, 1912), p.375, p389; Steve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), p.229. See also Curt Haij, 'Skottar i Stockholm under 1600-talet', unpublished list of names, Hintze biblioteket, Genealogiska Föreningen, Sundbyberg, Stockholm. Thanks to Ardis Dreisbach for this information.


Service record

Arrived 1619-06-14
Departed 1657-06-30