To understand this section you need to know how diodes work. So click on the diode symbol if you've haven't checked out the diode pages yet!

A Bipolar Transistor essentially consists of a pair of PN Junction Diodes that are joined back-to-back. This forms a sort of a sandwich where one kind of semiconductor is placed inbetween two others. There are therefore two kinds of Bipolar sandwich, the NPN and PNP varieties. The three layers of the sandwich are conventionally called the Collector, Base, and Emitter. The reasons for these names will become clear later once we see how the transistor works.

Some of the basic properties exhibited by a Bipolar Transistor are immediately recognisable as being diode-like. However, when the 'filling' of the sandwich is fairly thin some interesting effects become possible that allow us to use the Transistor as an amplifier or a switch. To see how the Bipolar Transistor works we can concentrate on the NPN variety.

Figure 1 shows the energy levels in an NPN transistor when we aren't externally applying any voltages. We can see that the arrangement looks like a back-to-back pair of PN Diode junctions with a thin P-type filling between two N-type slices of 'bread'. In each of the N-type layers conduction can take place by the free movement of electrons in the conduction band. In the P-type (filling) layer conduction can take place by the movement of the free holes in the valence band. However, in the absence of any expernally applied electric field, we find that depletion zones form at both PN-Junctions, so no charge wants to move from one layer to another.

Consider now what happens when we apply a moderate voltage between the Collector and Base parts of the transistor. The polarity of the applied voltage is chosen to increase the force pulling the N-type electrons and P-type holes apart. (i.e. we make the Collector positive with respect to the Base.) This widens the depletion zone between the Collector and base and so no current will flow. In effect we have reverse-biassed the Base-Collector diode junction. The precise value of the Base-Collector voltage we choose doesn't really matter to what happens provided we don't make it too big and blow up the transistor! So for the sake of example we can imagine applying a 10 Volt Base-Collector voltage.

Content and pages maintained by: Jim Lesurf (
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University of St. Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland.