School of Physics & Astronomy

Find a PhD Project Here

Opportunities for fully funded PhD or EngDoc research projects are available in all fields of research within the School. You may search for current projects on this page. APPLY HERE for a PhD Place.

 PhD in Photonics
 PhD in Condensed Matter
 PhD in Astrophysics

Search current PhD opportunities in the School of Physics & Astronomy:-


Galactic Dark Matter Effects from New Physics of Modified Gravity or Dark Energy
Zhao, Dr Hongsheng -

We explore alternatives to the Cold Dark Matter framework by adding new physics in Dark Matter.
The new physics could include Modified Gravity or matter with fifth force interactions.
Several rare coincidences of scales in standard particle physics
are needed to explain why the negative pressure of the cosmological dark energy (DE)
(i) coincides with the positive pressure of random motion of dark matter (DM) in bright galaxies,
(ii) is within order of magnitude of the energy density of neutrinos, if it is allowed to have a mass of eV.
(iii) why Dark Matter in galaxies seems to follow the Tully-Fisher-Milgrom (MOND) relation of galaxy rotation curves, rather than the CDM predicted profile.
The aim is to link empirical dark matter constraints in galaxies with the cosmology.
The work can be purely theoretical using the Euler-Lagrangian approach. Or empirical by fitting galaxy velocity distributions and Gravitational Lensing data.
3D atmosphere simulations of giant gas planets and mini-Neptunes
Helling, Dr Christiane -

Extrasolar planets have proven to be far more diverse than the planets in the solar system. This project will study the climate of giant planets and mini-Neptunes by conducting 3D global circulation simulations.

Giant gas planets and mini-Neptuns form in the outer, most cool parts of planet forming disks but end up with different masses. How does this effect their climate? How does the climate change depending on their orbital position? How can this be observed?

This project will focus on the 3D climate simulations that self-consistently include cloud formation in chemically different environments. The aim of the project is to compare the 3D atmospheric structures of mini-Neptuns with the well-studied case of giant gas planets (e.g. HD189733b). The project will also study ionisation processes in exoplanet atmospheres that may lead to the formation of an ionosphere and the occurrence of lighting. Lightning may provide a new window into the dynamic atmospheres of extrasolar planets which so far is observed as an unresolved dot in the sky. This project is timely linked to the launch of JWST, the largest IR and near-IR space telescope in years to come.

A bad case of split personality
Jardine, Prof Moira -

Recent studies of the magnetic fields of very low mass stars shows a strange and so far unexplained behaviour. Some have strong, simple magnetic fields, and some have much weaker, complex, solar-like field magnetic fields. We do not fully understand why this difference occurs, but this project involves using the maps of the magnetic fields of these star to explore the physics of their coronae and winds and to examine the impact on any orbiting planets.
Angular momentum loss and mass loading of stellar winds - slingshot prominences in action
Jardine, Prof Moira -

Many solar-like stars show cool, dense clouds of gas trapped within the million-degree plasma of their outer atmospheres (or coronae). These so-called ``slingshot prominences'' carry away angular momentum when they are ejected and also are also responsible for mass-loading of the stellar wind. As a result, they may form an important part of the spin-down of young stars, and their impact on orbiting planets may lead to enhanced stripping of the planetary atmosphere.
Annihilation of Dark Matter
Zhao, Dr Hongsheng -

A main diagnostic of the particle dark matter is its annihilation rate, which depends sensitively on the dark matter density profile. The student will explore various density models of the dark matter, taking into account the effects of black holes and baryonic dynamics.
Determining the origins of galaxy bimodality using hierarchical Bayes methods
Wild, Dr Vivienne -

How galaxies form and evolve is one of the outstanding questions of modern astrophysics. Extremely large spectroscopic surveys are providing an increasingly detailed census of both local and distant galaxies. Considerable progress is being made on quantifying the changing demographics of the galaxy population over the majority of the age of the Universe, but significant improvements in methods are demanded by the increasingly large samples, and often decreasing quality of the individual observations.

In the last decade a Bayesian approach to the fitting of sophisticated models to high quality spectra and/or multiwavelength photometry has become common place in the analysis of galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at all redshifts (Walcher et al. 2011). The result are robust physical properties, such as stellar mass and star formation history, as well as well understood degeneracies between fitted parameters. We now know that massive galaxies come in two main types - elliptical/quiescent and spiral/star-forming. Understanding why this is, is a key science goal in astrophysics.

By treating galaxies as independent entities to determine their physical properties, we are missing vital information. A better approach would be to treat them as a population of objects with common origin. This could tighten constraints on physical properties of galaxies, but also mean that we can extract more useful information from large surveys producing lower quality observations.

Hierarchical Bayes techniques have appeared in the astronomical literature to solve problems as diverse as QSO redshift estimation (Bovy et al. 2011), exo-planet orbit analysis (Hogg et al. 2011), properties of SN 1a light curves (Mandel et al. 2009), and photometric redshifts (Leistedt et al. 2016). They differ from standard Bayesian methods by fitting the entire dataset in a coherent manner, instead of single objects as entirely independent entities. By applying these methods to galaxy evolution studies, we will improve our ability to break degeneracies. These methods could be applied to e.g. complete populations of galaxies in spectroscopic or photometric surveys, or entire integral field datacubes of single galaxies.

The school of physics and astronomy at the University of St Andrews is a member of the UK participation group in SDSS-IV (fourth generation of Sloan Digital Sky Surveys,, a large international collaboration encompassing several astronomical surveys (including MaNGA and eBOSS). Drs Wild, Weijmans, and Tojeiro all have data access. Access to data from the SDSS-IV survey is rare in the UK, and guaranteed through the supervisors core involvement in the survey.

The project involves the development of statistical techniques to make them applicable to astronomical datasets. This project would suit students with a background in astrophysics but aptitude for maths and statistics, and also those with a background in maths, statistics or physics and interest in astrophysics.

Please contact Vivienne Wild, the lead supervisor for the project, for more information ( This project will be co-supervised by Dr Rita Tojeiro.

Bovy J., Myers A. D., Hennawi J. F. et al. arXiv:1105.3975
Hogg D. W., Myers A. D., Bovy J., 2010, ApJ, 725, 2166
Leistedt B., Mortlock D., Peiris H., 2016, MNRAS, 460, 4258
Mandel K. S.; Wood-Vasey W. M., Friedman A. S., Kirshner R. P., 2009, ApJ, 704, 629
Walcher C. J., Groves B., Budavri T., Dale D., Ap&SS, 2011, 331, 1
Diffuse ionized gas in galaxies
Wood, Dr Kenny -

Extensive layers of diffuse ionized gas are observed in the Milky Way and other galaxies. This project will study the structure, ionization, heating, and dynamics of diffuse ionized gas using a combination of 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes and recent 3D dynamical models of a supernova driven ISM.
Dissecting galaxies in transition
Wild, Dr Vivienne -

The number density of `red and dead' elliptical galaxies increases with cosmic time, meaning galaxies must be transitioning from star-forming disks. In this project we will use the SDSS-IV MaNGA integral field survey alongside mock observations of hydrodynamic simulations to move beyond demographics and pin down which physical processes are responsible for this transition, as a function of stellar mass and environment.

Massive galaxies in the nearby Universe typically fall into two distinct populations (e.g. Strateva et al. 2001; Baldry et al. 2004): actively star-forming disk galaxies, and `red and dead' elliptical galaxies with little or no signs of ongoing star formation. The bimodality in the star-forming properties of massive galaxies has existed since at least z~2 (Tomczak et al. 2014), and the strong correlation between star-forming properties and morphology holds to a similar epoch.

The increasing number density of red-sequence galaxies with cosmic time at fixed stellar mass (e.g. Moutard et al. 2016) tells us that galaxies move from the blue-cloud to the red-sequence by having their star formation halted (`quenched'). Coincidentally, the typical star formation rate of galaxies decreases as they exhaust their gas supplies, but this process is unable to account for the alteration in the galaxies' morphologies. Many different mechanisms have been proposed to partly or wholly explain the build-up of the quenched elliptical population with time, such as gas stripping, merger induced starbursts, AGN feedback and morphological quenching.

Catching galaxies that are in the act of transition, and studying both their evolving demographics and their properties in detail, alongside mock observations from state-of-the-art simulations, are the ways to make further progress (Wild et al. 2009). These objects are rare, and only recently have surveys been large enough for us to be able to constrain the number density evolution of green-valley and post-starburst galaxies, alongside the quiescent galaxies we expect them to evolve into.

The advent of highly multiplexed integral field surveys, alongside well developed hydrodynamic galaxy simulations, means the time is perfect for a fully encompassing study of all types of candidate-transition galaxies. The fossil record of a galaxy's formation history is encoded in its morphology, stellar kinematics, stellar populations and dust, ionised gas content and kinematics. The MaNGA survey provides access to all of these, alongside robust control samples, volume correctable number densities, a wide range of environments and stellar masses. Importantly, comparison to large numbers of hydrodynamic simulations is now possible, converted into mock data cubes to be analysed in exactly the same way as the data.

In this project we will study the morphologies, shapes, spatially resolved kinematics and stellar populations of the largest ever sample of local post-starburst, blue-ellipticals, red-spirals and green-valley galaxies observed with an integral field unit, alongside large sets of control samples and hydrodynamic simulations. We will aim to understand what are their ancestors and descendants and thereby understand whether they are truly transitioning populations, and on what timescales. We will use these results to interpret data from high-redshift surveys, where post-starburst galaxies are far more common and potentially important for building the present-day galaxy bimodality (Wild et al. 2016).

This project will be co-supervised with Dr Anne-Marie Weijmans, lead observer for MaNGA.

Strateva et al. 2001, AJ 122, 1861
Baldry et al. 2004, ApJ 600, 681
Tomczak et al. 2014, ApJ, 783, 85
Moutard et al. 2016, A&A, 590, 103
Wild et al. 2009, MNRAS, 395, 144
Wild et al. 2016, MNRAS, 463, 832
MaNGA survey :
Echo Mapping of Black Hole Accretion Flows in Active Galactic Nuclei
Horne, Prof Keith -

This project qualifies as an STFC studentship in Data-Intensive Science.

Light travel time delays enable micro-arcsecond mapping of accretion discs and broad emission-line regions around the super-massive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies. Using our share of time on the LCOGT robotic telescope network, along with data from HST, Swift and Kepler satellites, we are monitoring spectral variations of Active Galactic Nuclei to measure black hole masses, accretion rates, and luminosity distances. By decoding information in the reverberating emission-line profiles, we make 2-dimensional velocity-delay maps of broad emission-line regions, mapping the velocity field and ionisation structure of the accretion flows. The student will acquire and analyse such datasets, fitting parameterised models using MCMC methods, image reconstruction using Horne maximum entropy fitting code MEMEcho, and photo-ionisation codes such as Ferland's Cloudy.
Feedback in young stellar clusters
Cyganowski, Dr Claudia -

Most stars form in clusters, where energetic feedback from massive
(proto)stars--including outflows, ionization, heating, and
winds--shapes the environment and impacts accretion. The relative
importance of different feedback processes is a key outstanding
issue in our understanding of massive star formation.

The aim of this project is to conduct the first large-scale
observational study of the role and physics of feedback in massive
(proto)clusters. This will involve analyzing high-resolution data
from recently-upgraded (sub)mm and cm-wavelength interferometers, in
particular the Submillimeter Array (SMA), the Jansky Very Large Array
(VLA), and, potentially, the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter
Array (ALMA). The observational results will be compared with
simulated observations of numerical models of massive star and
cluster formation.
Frictional charging of dust grains: lightning in discs?
Woitke, Dr Peter -

Dust grains in protoplanetary discs generally charge up due to photo-effect, electron attachment, and charge exchange reactions with molecular ions. Grain-grain collisions can possibly lead to an additional statistical charging (contact electrification), which has not yet been thoroughly discussed in the disc community yet (see e.g. Muranushi 2010). If grains of different sizes collide, charge up size-dependently, and move selectively (by gravitational settling), a large-scale charge separation could build up, leading to lightning in discs. This scenario has been proposed to explain intra-cloud lightning observed in volcano plumes, as well as lightning in the Earth’s atmosphere and in exo-planets (Helling et al. 2016). Similar effects could take place in protoplanetary discs, causing radio emission and having a long-term impact of the chemical composition of the gas.

* Is frictional charging a key process for midplane ionisation and the MRI in discs?
* Can the gravitational settling of charged grains build up electrostatic fields in discs?
* Can this field overcome the break-down field to cause spontaneous discharge processes (lightning)?
* Where exactly, in the disc, are these processes most likely to occur?
* Could lightning lead to observable signals, like short-term radio variability?
* Could lightning have a long-lasting impact on the chemistry in the planet-forming region?

PhD-student is expected to implement triboelectric charging rates into ProDiMo, using typical turbulent dust velocities from MHD disc models. The resulting charge distribution of the grains will be studied depending on size and location in the disc, and consequences for large-scale electrification and lightning in discs shall be discussed.
GravityCam lucky-imaging microlensing survey
Dominik, Dr Martin -

GravityCam is a proposed mosaic camera composed of ~100 EMCCDs with a novel design that for the first time combines a wide field with a very fast readout, thereby achieving an angular resolution of 0.15’’ by means of lucky imaging and opening up an entirely new observing paradigm for ground-based astronomy, its only real competition being in space. A core science driver for GravityCam is a Galactic bulge microlensing survey that could go about 4 magnitudes deeper than current efforts for the same signal-to-noise ratio and exposure time, and thereby at the same sensitivity probe cool planets (or satellites) that are 100 times less massive, which gives access to a hitherto uncharted region in planet parameter space extending down to Lunar mass. In addition, as a unique and versatile instrument, GravityCam will be suitable for addressing a wide variety of scientific applications, including in particular studies of dark matter (by means of weak lensing), fast-varying astronomical objects, asteroseismology, variability and astrometry in crowded fields, occultations by small Solar-System bodies, and transiting extra-solar planets, while providing an extensive resource for general data mining of the high-speed variable sky.

You will have the opportunity to optimise the design of a GravityCam microlensing campaign by means of simulations in order to maximise the science output relating to the arising planet population statistics, which requires carefully balanced choices of exposure time and cadence dictating the total survey area. Moreover, you can take part in current observational efforts (MiNDSTEp and Robonet-II), pioneering crowded-field lucky-imaging photometry and real-time scheduling of microlensing targets across telescope networks.
Heating and Cooling in Hydro-Simulations of Protoplanetary Discs
Woitke, Dr Peter -

New spatially resolved observations of protoplanetary discs have revealed so far unseen spatial structures within the discs, such as rings, holes, spiral arms, warps, shadows, and large vortices. They are detected at various wavelengths, in the gas and dust, in scattered light and in thermal emission. These structures are very likely direct signposts of the planet formation process in the discs, yet current hydrodynamical disc models suffer from a very basic uncertainty, namely the poor treatment of radiative transfer and heating/cooling effects in hydrodynamical disc models. The supervisor is an expert in the fields of chemistry, heating & cooling and radiative transfer, but these techniques need to be extended and merged with (magneto) hydrodynamics in 3D to get ready for the new challenges in the era of spatially resolved disc observations.

This project aims at merging current state-of-the-art modelling techniques concerning (magneto) hydrodynamics, chemistry and radiative transfer in protoplanetary discs. Based on the radiation thermo-chemical disc code "ProDiMo" which includes a very detailed treatment of 2D continuum and line radiative transfer, and gas energy balance, we aim at the production of numerical look-up-tables of equilibrium gas and dust temperatures, chemical and ice composition of the gas, and effective heating & cooling rates suitable for hydrodynamical disc simulations.

The task is to build a brigde between thermo-chemical and hydrodynamical disc simulations. The student will study and learn how to run both types of models, calculate the look-up-tables with ProDiMo, and then apply these in hydrodynamical disc simulations.
Irradiated brown dwarfs in the galaxy
Helling, Dr Christiane -

Brown dwarfs are very low-mass stars which are as cool as planets. In contrast to planets, most of the brown dwarfs are fast rotators with strong magnetic fields causing strong radio emission to emerge. The origin of this radio emission is largely unsolved but must be linked to the atmospheric environment somehow. This project therefore focuses on the 3D structure of brown dwarf atmospheres under the effect of external irradiation. External irradiation will ionise the upper atmosphere but also affect the energy budget of the underlying and cloud forming atmospheric regions.

The aim of this project is to develop a 3D climate model for brown dwarfs under the effect of external irradiation in order to study for the first time the interior of a 3D brown dwarf atmosphere as well as the possibility of the emergence of a chromosphere environment. First, we will study a generic set up, but will apply this model to white dwarf - brown dwarf binaries and free-floating brown dwarfs in different galactic environments.
Mass Distribution of the Galaxy
Zhao, Dr Hongsheng -

The mass distribution of the Galaxy is being / will be mapped out in great detail in the next decade with the numerous surveys of the Galaxy, including Segue, RAVE, GAIA, and completed ones like 2MASS, DENIS. A model for the potential and phase space of the galaxy is essential to bring various pieces of information together. The student will develop such models building on experience from existing models.
New physics for Dark Matter via Modified Gravity/Dark Energy

We explore alternatives to the Cold Dark Matter framework by adding new physics in Dark Matter.
The new physics could include Modified Gravity or matter with fifth force interactions.
Several rare coincidences of scales in standard particle physics
are needed to explain why the negative pressure of the cosmological dark energy (DE)
(i) coincides with the positive pressure of random motion of dark matter (DM) in bright galaxies,
(ii) is within order of magnitude of the energy density of neutrinos, if it is allowed to have a mass of eV.
(iii) why Dark Matter in galaxies seems to follow the Tully-Fisher-Milgrom (MOND) relation of galaxy rotation curves, rather than the CDM predicted profile.

The work can be purely theoretical using the Euler-Lagrangian approach. Or empirical by fitting galaxy velocity distributions and Gravitational Lensing data.
New Physics for Galactic Dark Matter via Modified Gravity/Dark Energy

We explore alternatives to the Cold Dark Matter framework by adding new physics in Dark Matter.
The new physics could include Modified Gravity or matter with fifth force interactions.
Several rare coincidences of scales in standard particle physics
are needed to explain why the negative pressure of the cosmological dark energy (DE)
(i) coincides with the positive pressure of random motion of dark matter (DM) in bright galaxies,
(ii) is within order of magnitude of the energy density of neutrinos, if it is allowed to have a mass of eV.
(iii) why Dark Matter in galaxies seems to follow the Tully-Fisher-Milgrom (MOND) relation of galaxy rotation curves, rather than the CDM predicted profile.

The work can be purely theoretical using the Euler-Lagrangian approach. Or empirical by fitting galaxy velocity distributions and Gravitational Lensing data.
Star formation in dwarf galaxies
Bonnell, Prof Ian -

This project is to develop the first models of resolved star formation on galactic scales. This will involve modelling a full galactic potential and how it drives the formation of molecular clouds and the onset of gravitational collapse and star formation. feedback from ionisation and supernova will be included to assess molecular cloud lifetimes and star formation efficiencies.
Star-Planet Interaction
Jardine, Prof Moira -

Tau Boo is the only star for which we have been able to track the full cyclic reversal of the stellar magnetic field. This system is also well-known, however, because it hosts a Hot Jupiter that is so close to the star that it may lie within the stellar corona. What is the nature of the interaction between the star and planet in this case and is it related to the puzzling nature of the very short magnetic cycle? This project will investigate tau Boo and other similar star-planet systems.
The evolution of newborn Sun-like stars
Gregory, Dr Scott -

When a newborn solar-like star emerges from its natal cloud it is still surrounded by a substantial disk of dust and gas. At this stage of pre-main sequence evolution the star interacts with the inner disk via its large-scale magnetic field, which channels gas onto the stellar surface at high velocity. Recent large observing programs have begun to reveal how their magnetic geometries are linked to their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Tentatively, it appears as though solar-like stars are born with simple axisymmetric magnetic fields that become more multipolar/complex and non-axisymmetric as the stellar interior structure varies from fully to partially convective. Should this stellar structure change occur before the disk has dispersed it will have implications for the magnetic star-disk interaction, the coronal evolution of the star itself, the balance of torques in the star-disk system, and the rotation rate of the star. Using the latest observational data as a basis, the student will model the star-disk interaction and coronal magnetic evolution as stars evolve across the pre-main sequence.

For more evolved pre-main sequence stars, where the disk has dispersed but the star is still contracting under gravity, it has been observed that the scatter in X-ray luminosities decreases for stars in older star-forming regions, approaching main sequence cluster levels by about ~30 Myr (roughly the pre-main sequence lifetime of a solar mass star). Using new data currently being acquired as part of a large program at the Canada-France-Hawai'i Telescope we will model the coronal evolution of pre-main sequence stars, and produce a theoretical grounding for the observed evolution of their rotation-activity relationship.
Triggering of star formation
Bonnell, Prof Ian -

There are several outstanding issues in current models of star formation. One of these is the role of feedback from young stars in producing subsequent generations of young stars. Triggering of star formation through supernova events is likely to be the dominant mechanism. Numerical simulations of SNII impacting on molecular clouds and the triggering of star formation will be used to develop physical models, and ultimately observational predictions and tests of the process.
Understanding the impact of structure formation on galaxy evolution using DESI
Tojeiro, Dr Rita -

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument survey will gather spectra for many millions of galaxies over 14,000 sq. degrees of sky. The size and depth of DESI, particularly of the Bright Galaxy Survey, will allow us to study the large-scale structure and detailed local environment of each galaxy with unprecedented accuracy. Combined with careful spectral analysis of galaxies, which tells us about the star formation history, chemical enrichment and dust content of galaxies, we will be able to link the evolution of galaxies with their cosmological and local environment with unmatched clarity.

However, current spectral analysis techniques, although successful, rely on much higher signal to noise data than will be delivered by DESI.

In the regime where we have very many N spectra of low S/N, you will explore forward-modelling techniques, whereby model populations of galaxies are forward-modelled through a survey’s window function, which includes selection and observational effects such as target selection, photon-noise, foregrounds, etc. In that regime, we are interested in recovering the mean physical properties of a set of M galaxy populations, where M << N (see Montero-Dorta et al. 2016 for a simplified application to another dataset). The potential of this technique lies in the fact that the redshift evolution of the galaxy populations may be measured in a completely self-consistent way, using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. In addition you will explore simpler, fully data-driven techniques to recover a mean signal from noisy data. You will use simulations to understand how complex star-formation histories might be able to be simplified and parametrised (e.g. Diemer et al. 2017).

You will then be able to study the detailed evolution of galaxies within the intricate context of their large- and small-scale environment, which will be beautifully characterised by DESI - see Tojeiro et al. 2017 for an example on GAMA data.

This project will suit a student with a keen interest in data analysis, algorithm development, applied statistics and data science.

This project will be co-supervised by Dr Vivienne Wild.

The DESI survey:
Montero-Dorta et al. 2016, MNRAS, 461, 1131
Diemer et al. 2017, ApJ, 839, 26
Tojeiro et al. 2017, MNRAS, 470, 3720
Unraveling accretion geometries in young stars
Wood, Dr Kenny -

Currently popular models for the formation of stars like the Sun invoke accretion along magnetic field lines from a protoplanetary disk onto hot spots on the stellar surface. This star-disk model can explain the observed infrared emission from disks and also the ultraviolet excess emission produced from shocks of accreting material impacting the stellar surface. Young stars also display multi-wavelength variability on a wide range of timescales, again attributed to the accretion geometry. The on-going YSOVARS observing campaign is obtaining vast optical and infrared datasets on young stars revealing the complexities of their temporal variability. The goal of this PhD project is to use detailed three dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations to model the observed multiwavelength data from the YSOVARs project. Working together with Kenny Wood and Aleks Scholz at St Andrews and in collaboration with members of the YSOVARS team in California, the student will explore different classes of variability and the different star-disk-magnetic field configurations that produce the observed light curves. By modeling data from the vast YSOVARs archive, we will learn about magnetic accretion geometries, disk warping, and the accompanying variability on a range of different time and spatial scales, all contributing to a greater understanding of the star formation process.

Informal enquiries to Kenny Wood:
Warm chemistry in the planet-forming region of protoplanetary discs with JWST
Woitke, Dr Peter -

Carr & Najita (2008) have established that class II T Tauri stars usually exhibit rich molecular emission spectra of H2O, OH, CO2, HCN and C2H2. These emissions are often superpositions of many (up to hundreds of) individual emission lines. JWST/MIRI and, in the future SPICA/SMI, will observe protoplanetary discs with unprecedented spectral resolution and signal/noise.

In the frame of the supervisor's FP7 project "DIANA" we have developed the new fast line tracer FLiTs (yet unpublished work) which can compute formal solutions of the line radiative transfer problem for tens of thousands of spectral lines simultaneously, including the Keplerian velocity fields and physical line overlaps. These line radiative transfer calculations are based on ProDiMo (Woitke et al.2009) thermo-chemical disc models, which compute the chemical abundances and temperatures of gas and dust.

These two developments allow us to harvest future JWST and SPICA line observations of discs. Our models predict these lines fully consistently with the calculated 2D disc structures, which is a much
more powerful approach than previously used parametric LTE-slab models.
The science questions are

* What are the element abundances, and what is the molecular composition of the gas in the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary discs?
* Why do some T Tauri stars show strong molecular emission lines whereas others don’t? Why do Herbig Ae stars show weaker line emissions?
* Can we use IR molecular emission lines to determine the spatial disc structure and diagnose disc anomalies such as gaps, vortices and spiral waves at radial distances of a few AU?
* Can we conclude about dust opacities and gas/dust ratios in the planet forming region?