This Newsletter was published on Wednesday 14 December 2011

Build your own Marvell library (for free)

When we begin reading we are insatiably curious; all the kingdoms of the world and their glory seem to lie open before us in our books; we have only to enter in and take possession. When we are sober we resolve to know one thing, if we can. [1]

This article offers Marvell scholars—though not just those and certainly not all—a practical approach to some of the difficulties that they face as they pursue their research outside the research universities and research libraries. For some, it will be old news, even covered in an up-to-date course on Bibliography and Research Methods. Nonetheless, some of the following scholars may find it useful:

  • Graduate students and recent graduates
  • Scholars wandering from institution to institution
  • Scholars at small and regional institutions
  • Scholars at institutions far away from research universities and/or major cities
  • Independent scholars and retirees.

This article is divided into the following sections:


What libraries do for you

To one degree or another, every scholar needs the same four things:

  • Awareness: Knowing what scholarly resources are out there and where they are
  • Access to resources (books, manuscripts, journals)
  • Time to make best use of those resources
  • And the money to fund their research.

From the narrowest perspective, awareness comes from reading footnotes, bibliographies, and tables of contents. The goal is to identify what you may want to read and where you can find them. And when you do find them, you develop greater awareness, which leads to more reading and more seeking: search merges into research.

From awareness comes the need for access, and here is where the scholar encounters barriers. Whatever resources your institution may provide online or on the shelves, it cannot provide all of them. Your school’s library may not have a wide and deep collection, one that supports reading for awareness, one that can help you identify which specific books and documents you may need.

Of course, reading in a research library is more efficient, for awareness as much as for research—IF the library is nearby and IF it will let you in. Libraries at state universities are accessible—but they depend on state budgetary allocations, and too often their collections are neglected and out of date. Turn to libraries at private universities—and find yourself turned away or given grudging access. Special collections come with their own, more stringent barriers. Costs start to mount: transportation, parking fees, user fees.

It seems that the rarer a resource is, the farther away it is, and the more difficult and expensive it is to access. And how much time do you have? How many collections can you afford to visit this year (and how often)? How much time do you have before your institution expects to see a list of your publications?

Every scholar builds a personal library, where research often begins and ends. Modern editions are costly (even in electronic form), but where your money is, there will your heart be also. The real expense of the personal library, though, is not the initial cost, but the ongoing maintenance.  Books take up space, and young, rootless scholars must move those books from place to place, then find some place to put them—on a young scholar’s income.

What you need, what you can have right now, and what you can’t

What you need is a personal library that is

  • Broad and/or deep, like a research library
  • Very accessible, at home and in the office
  • Cheap to acquire, maintain, and use.

What you can have is not so deep as a well, nor as wide as a church door. But it’s better than what most scholars had until just recently. We’re talking about lots of free books, from lots of scholarly libraries. Yes, Google’s scanning a lot of books and putting them up on the internet. Lots of libraries are doing the same. The trick (so to speak) is getting them and using them effectively.

At this point, though, it’s useful to understand what you can’t have (mostly) from the internet:

  1. Books that are under copyright
  2. Every book that you might want, in the best edition/translation
  3. The best, most complete, most readable copies.

For the first, that’s what library budgets and scholars’ pockets are for. As for the rest, well, that’s always been the case, whatever the medium.

In sum, your situation—institutional association, academic rank, scholarly status—may afford you access to better solutions. For the rest of us, this internet-based solution may help.

Illustrating the value of this solution

Let’s look at an example of top-quality academic scholarship as it is practiced today: Martin Dzelzainis’s lecture “Andrew Marvell and George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham” EIRC 36.2 (Winter 2010), 151-69.

Of the 34 works cited [2], 27 (79%) are print sources, while 7 (21%) are electronic (“Web”); 18 (53%) are under copyright, while 16 (47%) are not. Inevitably, the article depends on access to a university research library:

  • Of the electronic works, five of the seven are DNB articles, from the 2004 online edition available via library subscription. Because they represent recent scholarship, there is no alternative source for this information.
  • Among the print works, the modern scholarly editions of Buckingham and Locke are unlikely to be found outside the research library. Alternatives (not substitutes) can be downloaded: the 1775 edition of Buckingham’s Works and a transcription of the Huntington Library MS of Locke’s Essay on Toleration.

Other copyrighted works are certainly more likely to be in the institutional library than on the scholar’s own shelves. Such is the reality of scholarly research in any age.

Dzelzainis cites 13 printed monographs that are not under copyright. These are books that are found on the shelves of established research libraries (though not necessarily at one and the same library). They are also the works most likely to be found on the internet and in most cases available for download. Of those works cited,

  • Four are available in the cited edition: Aristotle (ed. Bekker), Dryden, Primerose (1658), Saint-Évremond (Works)
  • Four are available in a different (but not necessarily inferior) edition: Clarendon (humble petition), Clarendon (Life), Saint-Évremond (Life), Selden
  • One is partially available in a different edition: Hales
  • One is available for viewing only: Primerose/Wittie
  • Three are not available: Lloyd, Primerose (1638 and 1640).

In addition, two of the “Web” documents are available online for download, as Professor Dzelzainis indicates.

Of course, the central documents for a Marvell article are Marvell editions, all three of which might reasonably (but not inevitably) be in a Marvell scholar’s personal library:

  • Margoliouth/Legouis, ed., Poems and Letters
  • Nigel Smith, ed., Poems
  • Dzelzainis/Patterson, ed., Prose

All three are under copyright. Lacking a convenient copy of any of them, a scholar might refer to (though not cite) Grosart’s Complete Works in Verse and Prose(4 vols, 1872), available for download.

It is reasonable to conclude that scholarship in this area can be pursued effectively using freely available electronic documents. It cannot be done without libraries. However, electronic documents can often substitute for printed documents with no loss of scholarly authority and integrity. The use of these electronic documents is subject to the same scholarly discretion as the printed ones; scholarship is not compromised by the documents’ availability, ease of use, and low/no cost.

The gist: free access to free books

Books and where to find them

At this moment in history, the best source (though not the only one) for free scholarly books is Its advantages are

  • It is central: everybody seems to deposit there, and anybody can get there and get in
  •  It is comprehensive: not just documents, but also music and video, if you’re into that, and
  • It is cheap beyond belief: no registration, no subscription, no user fees, no parking fees.

The books are of all sizes and in all electronic formats. To varying degrees the contents can be copied and/or clipped, text and pictures both. Think of as the scholars’ Golden Corral or Wal-Mart—or, better, as a large and growing research library.

Of course, there are disadvantages, though few that scholars haven’t encountered in real, brick-and-mortar libraries:

  • Because document files can come from anywhere, there is little in the way of a common standard for documenting them.
  • Consequently, searching is not always easy: items are sometimes mis-catalogued, authors mis-identified, editions inadequately identified, and useful information (e.g., volume number) unreported.
  • Scanned copies are sometimes retired copies, because, for instance, tightly bound books may have to be unbound; and retired copies are retired for a reason, such as water damage or missing leaves—tipped-in illustrations in particular.
  • During scanning, there may be failures of quality control. Pages may have slipped, leaving a blur instead of a block of text. Only part of a page may have been scanned; the other half is a solid block of gray.
  • Electronic document formats differ in how reliably they represent their source. This is discussed below.
  • For every good book, there are many bad. Not every book is great, worthy, reliable, or trustworthy. Not every book is fit for every purpose. That’s where scholarly discretion and scholarly knowledge come in.

Nonetheless, the scholarly library that you can assemble from this source can be immensely useful, especially in the early, “awareness” phase of research, but later as well. Many of these uses are treated in detail in the What’s Out There (examples) sections.

But usefulness depends on how you use something: a book can be a doorstop. Therefore, we turn to tools, processes, and instructions for use.

Tools and where to find them

To assemble and use your library effectively, you will need

  1. A personal computer
  2. A broadband connection to the internet
  3. A web browser
  4. Someplace to put your downloads (a repository)—for example,
    1. Space on your hard drive or
    2. DVDs (DVD burner required) or
    3. An external drive or
    4. Storage space in the internet cloud or even
    5. A flash drive
  5. Some way to read your treasures—for example, Adobe Acrobat Reader (discussed below)
  6. Some way to organize and annotate your treasures—for example, cataloguing software.

For most of us, the one thing we don’t have is cataloguing software. Probably the most popular is


caibre has these advantages:

  1. It’s free.
  2. It comes in four flavors: Windows, Mac, Linux, and a small version for flash drives.
  3. It has the following capabilities:
    1. Import downloaded electronic document files for cataloguing. Formats include Adobe pdf, Microsoft Word .rtf, AZW (Amazon Kindle), EPUB (B&N Nook, Sony Reader, others), MOBI (PDAs, SmartPhones, etc.), txt, html, many others.
    2. Convert files between formats, i.e. take a document in one format and produce a (catalogued) copy in another. (The conversion facility is not always reliable.)
    3. Edit document metadata: author, title, series, number in series, keyword tags, ID numbers, date acquired, date published, publisher, languages.
    4. Display any imported document in any supported format (for reading).
    5. Sort the catalogue by any metadata category (author, title).
    6. Search the catalogue by individual terms (e.g., “biography”) or combinations of terms.
    7. Copy documents to a new location (an external repository), preserving all cataloguing data.

calibre (no cap) is a program for general, not specifically scholarly use. That understood, it can be valuable if used properly (next topic). calibre can be downloaded from or from only).

Using the tools effectively

The following quick-tour directions were developed on an Intel/Windows 7/broadband system[iii]. If you are using a Mac or a Linux system, how you do things may differ.

Downloading from a quick tour

Everybody knows how to download, so here are basic directions, guidelines, and suggestions:

  1. Point your web browser to
  2. Click one of the Texts links.
  3. Type a search term (“Marvell”) in the Search field, make sure that “Texts” is in the Media Types field (to the right), and click the GO! Button.
  4. The search for “Marvell” returns 98 items, the first 10 of which are Andrew Marvell by Augustine Birrell (New York and London: MacMillan, 1905).
  5. Click the item’s title to display the catalogue page for that item.

The first item on the book’s catalogue page is from the venerable Project Gutenberg.

  1. The metadata is skimpy: author, but no publication data, not even a date. But “Author” and “collection” are links. Click the author’s name to find 115 items associated with Augustine Birrell; click “collection” to display the portal page for Project Gutenberg.
  2. In the left column of the catalogue page is the “View the book” pane, containing three links—Full Text, HTML, and Full Text—along with a file size for each.
    1. Clicking “Full Text” (either link) displays the text in its own pane, in txt format. You can search the text, select all or part, and save or copy to a text editor or word processing document.
    2. Clicking “HTML” displays the text of Birrell’s book as a web page, which can be saved to disk, complete or in part.

A note on this screen states: “Images of the original pages are available through Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries.” Search for “Birrell Marvell” in the Canadian Libraries subsection of Texts (select from the drop-down list in the Media Types search field), and discover that two copies, from different collections at the University of Toronto, are available for download.

The second search item on our quick-tour search results page is Birrell’s book “digitized by Google from the library of Harvard University.” Click on that item’s title to display the catalogue page.

  1. The metadata is reasonably complete, and there is a note: “This book has an editable web page on Open Library.” The “editable web page” on provides more metadata that may be useful for cataloguing in calibre: LC number, pagination and number of pages, OCLC/WorldCat number, and a picture of the title page or cover.
  2. The “View the book” pane lists six formats for document download, plus “Read Online” and “Metadata” (forget this). “Read Online” is useful for sampling the document. Then you can decide if you want to download it. You can determine if the catalogue description is accurate or if the document/scan is of good quality.
    1. The second list item is “PDF (” It links to Google books, where (if you are recognized as having a free Google account, like a gmail address) you are invited to GET IT NOW. Click, and a link to the book is recorded in your account. Click READ THE BOOK to display it online. Unfortunately, while you can read it, you can’t download it or annotate it.
    2. There is a way, however, to download a PDF copy of the book. Near the bottom of the “View the book” pane is “All Files: HTTP.” HTTP is a link. Click on it to display a list of files associated with this catalogue item. The third item on this list is a PDF file, waiting for download.


The two-field search facility (near the top of any page) is not the only way to search. On the right of any search results page are a number of boxes. One is labeled “Refine your search.” It contains, among other things, a list of the Authors of the search items.

On our Marvell search results page, you will see Birrell, George Aitken, and two names for Marvell: Andrew Marvell and Marvell, Andrew, 1621-1678. Each name is a link for searching items under that name. Because some items are indexed under one name, some under the other, it’s useful to click each name, in turn, to see what turns up. Note too that the next page of search results may unearth new, previously unseen aliases.

What to download

I recommend downloading PDF files. They are larger than average, take longer to download, and take up more room in the repository. But they are most reliable when it comes to representing the source document. Other formats are character-based and therefore inaccurate—and the older the source document, the more inaccurate the text.

Project Gutenberg documents are a partial exception, because a volunteer editor has taken the time to bring the text into line with the source. Of course, there are better editors, and there are worse. Project Gutenberg does not produce scholarly editions.

Adobe has equipped its document reader with an excellent search engine as well as clip and copy facilities. However, to add comments or remove irrelevant pages, you will need a reasonably pricey Adobe application. As a workaround, you can always print individual pages, or you can download a version in a different format. Furthermore, you can always delete a file that has outlived its usefulness, then download it again when and if you need it.

Using Calibre

  1. Download your chosen documents all to the same staging folder. Under Windows 7, the default folder is named Downloads.
  2. Open Calibre and select Add Books. Tell calibre where to find the books and which ones to add. Calibre deposits copies of the selected books in its own repository. At your convenience, delete the files in the staging folder.
  3. Calibre lists all the added document files. Select one, and click Enter Metadata. You can then edit and add descriptors in the appropriate fields.
    1. I do not recommend using Calibre’s facility for downloading metadata from the internet. The search generally returns descriptions of print-on-demand copies marketed by Amazon or Barnes & Noble.
    2. You can generally get metadata from Wiki-based or, better,, the public face of OCLC.
    3. Double-click a Calibre list item to display that document.
    4. For special purposes, you may want to produce a document file in a different format. Usually, however, the clip and text copy functions of Acrobat Reader are adequate for copying illustrations and text for use elsewhere.

What’s out there, for example

The following sections emphasize books and other documents that Marvell scholars may find useful or have found useful. Coverage cannot be comprehensive, and the documentation is informal.

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From Miscellaneous Poems

From Miscellaneous Poems

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Andrew Marvell, Miscellaneous Poems (facs. rpt., London, Nonesuch Press, 1923)

Andrew Marvell, Complete Works in Verse and Prose, ed. A. B. Grosart (4 vols., 1872)

The works of Andrew Marvell, esq., ed. Capt. Edward Thompson (1st vol. of 3, London, 1776)

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Mildmay Fane, Otia Sacra

Mildmay Fane, Otia Sacra

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Poetry and Drama

Buckingham, The rehearsal, ed. Arber (London, 1869)

William D’avenant, Gondibert: An heroick poem (London, 1651)

The Poems of Thomas, Third Lord Fairfax, From Ms. Fairfax 40 in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, ed. Reed (New Haven, 1909)

Mildmay Fane, Otia sacra : optima fides (London, 1648)

Herbert J. C. Grierson, ed., Metaphysical Lyrics and Poems of the Seventeenth Century, Donne to Butler (Oxford, 1921)

Lucasta: Poems of Richard Lovelace, Esquire, intro. Phelps (2 vols., Chicago, Caxton Club, 1921)

åuvres complËtes de Saint-Amant, intro. Livet (2 vols., Paris, 1855)

George Saintsbury, ed., Minor Poets of the Caroline Period (3 vols., Oxford, 1905)

Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, The Odes of Casimire, intro. Roestvig (1646; Los Angeles, 1953)

Additionally, poems and/or plays by Alexander Brome, Richard Brome, Buckingham (Works, 2 vols.), Butler, Carew, Cartwright, Cleveland, Cotton, Cowley, Crashaw, Díavenant, Denham, Donne, Dryden, Herbert, Herrick, Thomas May, Milton, Henry More, Shirley, Stanley, Suckling, Tristan L’hermite, ThÈophile de Viau, Waller.

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From Gauden, Eikon Basilike

From Gauden, Eikon Basilike

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Controversy, religious and political

Herbert Croft, The Naked Truth (1675; rpt. London, 1919)

John Gauden, [Eikon Basilike]: The pourtraicture of his Sacred Majestie in his solitudes and sufferings. A reprint of the ed. of 1648, and a facsimile of the original frontispiece, intro. Scott (London, 1880)

Richard Leigh, The Transproser Rehears’d (Oxford, 1673)

John Milton, The doctrine and discipline of divorce (London, 1645)

–, Of Reformation, ed. Hale (New Haven, 1916)

–, The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth, ed. Clark (New Haven, 1915)

Additionally, works by Anglesey, Bramhall, Burnet, Thomas Edwards (Gangraena), Hales, Hall, Howe, Nedham, Owen, Prynne.

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From Harrington, Oceana

From Harrington, Oceana

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Other works

The Bible, that is, the Holy Scriptures [Geneva Bible] (London, 1615)

Jakob Bˆhme, The Epistles of Jacob Behmen Aliter, Teutonicus Philosophus (London, 1649)

James Harrington, The Oceana; And Other Works of James Harrington, Esq, ed. Toland (3rd ed., London, 1747) [John Adamsís copy]

John Milton, A Common-Place Book of John Milton, and a Latin Essay and Latin Verses Presumed to Be by Milton. Ed. From the Original Mss. In the Possession of Sir Frederick U. Graham, Bart., ed. Horwood (Camden Society, 1876)

Miltonís Tractate on Education. A facsimile reprint from the edition of 1673, ed. Browning (Cambridge, 1890)

Additionally, works by Burnet, Clarendon, Ralph Cudworth, John Dury, Henry More, William Petty, James Primerose, Thomas Urquhart.

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Thomas, third Lord Fairfax, from Markham

Thomas, third Lord Fairfax, from Markham

John Milton, from Masson, Life, vol. 6

John Milton, from Masson, Life, vol. 6

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Biographies and autobiographies

Margaret Cavendish, The life of William Cavendish Duke of Newcastle to which is added the true relation of my birth, breeding and life, ed. Firth (2nd ed., London, [1906])

The life of Edward earl of Clarendon . . . written by himself (3rd ed., 3 vols., Oxford, 1766)

T. E. S. Clarke and H. C. Foxworth, A life of Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury (Cambridge, 1907)

Henry Dircks, A Biographical Memoir of Samuel Hartlib, Milton’s Familiar Friend; With Bibliographical Notices of Works Published by Him; And a Reprint of His Pamphlet, Entitled “An Invention of Engines of Motion” (London, 1865)

Anton Lohr, Richard Flecknoe (Leipzig, 1905) [in German]

Clements R. Markham, A Life of the Great Lord Fairfax (London, 1870)

David Masson, Drummond of Hawthornden (London, 1873)

David Masson, The Life of John Milton (7 vols., London, 1871-1894)

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Bibliographies and guides

British Museum. Dept. of Printed Books. Thomason collection, Catalogue of the Pamphlets . . . collected by George Thomason (2 vols., London, 1908)

Bodleian Library, Calendar of the Clarendon state papers (4 vols., Oxford, 1872)

Arthur E. Case, A Bibliography of English Poetical Miscellanies, 1521-1750 (Oxford, 1935)

H. H. E. Craster, The Western Manuscripts of the Bodleian Library, Helps for Students of History No. 43 (London, 1921)

G. Davies, A student’s guide to the manuscripts relating to English history in the seventeenth century in the Bodleian library, Helps for Students of History No. 47 (London, 1922)

Nicholas Harris Nicolas, Public record. A description of the contents, objects, and uses of the various works printed by authority of the Record Commission (London, 1831)

Note: For historical research, the major online source is British History Online, . It provides no facility for downloading copies, but text can be selected and copied.

Buckingham, from Works, vol. 1

Buckingham, from Works, vol. 1

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Document collections: Letters

The Right Honourable the Earl of Arlington’s letters to Sir W. Temple (2 vols., London, 1701)

Cabala, Sive, Scrinia Sacra Mysteries of State and Government: In Letters of Illustrious Persons and Great Ministers of State as Well Forreign as Domestick, in the Reigns of King Henry the Eighth, Q. Elizabeth, K. James, and K. Charles (London, 1663)

The letters and speeches of Oliver Cromwell, ed. Lomas (3 vols., New York, 1904)

The Hamilton papers: being selections from original letters in the possession of His Grace the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, relating to the years 1638-1650, ed. Gardiner (Camden Society, 1880)

Hamilton papers. Addenda, ed. Gardiner (Camden Society, 1893)

Memorials of the Civil War : Comprising the Correspondence of the Fairfax Family, ed. Bell (2 vols., London, 1849)

Memorials of the Great Civil War, ed. Cary (2 vols., London, 1842)

The Hull Letters, ed. Wildridge (Hull, [1887]) [Contains Fairfax letters possibly lacking in Bellís Memorials.]

Milton’s Familiar Letters, ed. Hall (Philadelphia, 1829)

Henry Savile, Savile Correspondence, ed. Cooper (Camden Society, 1858)

The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, ed. Vaughan (2 vols., London, 1839)

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Elizabeth, Countess de Grammont

Elizabeth, Countess de Grammont

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Document collections: Memoirs

Anthony Hamilton, Memoirs of Count Grammont, ed. Goodwin (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1908)

Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe, wife of Sir Richard Fanshawe, bt. Ambassador from Charles II to the courts of Portugal & Madrid, written by herself containing extracts from the correspondence of Sir Richard Fanshawe, ed. Marshall (London, 1905)

Memoirs of Cardinal De Retz (Paris, [1903]) [A reader of the University of California copy notes that this edition is ìincomplete with respect to the French originalî (which is also available for download).]

Lucy Hutchinson, Memoirs of the life of Colonel Hutchinson, ed. Julius Hutchinson (new edition, rev. Firth; 2 vols., London, 1906)

The memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, ed. Firth (2 vols., Oxford, 1894)

The Works of Monsieur de St. Evremond, trans. Des Maizeaux (2nd ed., 3 vols., London, 1728)

Henry Slingsby, Original memoirs, written during the great Civil War (Edinburgh, 1806)

Memoirs, Biographical and Historical, of Bulstrode Whitelocke, ed. R. H. Whitelocke (London, 1860)

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House of Commons, ca. 1656, from Diary of Thomas Burton, vol. 1

House of Commons, ca. 1656, from Diary of Thomas Burton, vol. 1

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Document collections: Journals

Flagellum Parliamentarium (London, 1827) [BM Lansdown 805; a sarcastic commentary on MPs ca. 1671-72, often attributed to Marvell]

Diary of Thomas Burton, Esq., ed. Rutt (4 vols., London, 1828) [Parliamentary diary, 1653-59]

The Journal of Joachim Hane, ed. Firth (London, 1896) [Hane, a German military engineer, was used as a confidential agent for the Commonwealth in France.]

Bulstrode Whitelocke, A journal of the Swedish embassy in the years 1653 and 1654, ed. Morton (new edition, 2 vols., London, 1855)

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From Memorials of the discovery and early settlement of the Bermudas or Somers Islands, 1515-1685, ed. Lefroy, vol. 2 (London, 1879)

From Memorials of the discovery and early settlement of the Bermudas or Somers Islands, 1515-1685, ed. Lefroy, vol. 2 (London, 1879)

From Rushworth, Historical Collections, vol. 1

From Rushworth, Historical Collections, vol. 1

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Other collections

Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660, ed. Firth, vol. 3 (London, 1911) [Full text:]

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1649-1660 (13 vols.)

William Clarke, The Clarke Papers, ed. Firth (4 vols., Camden Society, 1891)

The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1625-1660, ed. Gardiner (2nd ed., Oxford, 1899)

The Harleian Miscellany, vol. 7 (London, 1810) [Prynne, The Censure of the Rota, Nedham, Cowley, ìThe Character of Holland,î Clarendon]

Letters and papers relating to the first Dutch war, 1652-1654, ed. Gardiner and Atkinson (6 vols., Navy Records Society, 1899-1930)

Francis Maseres, ed., Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England (2 vols., London, 1815) [Vol. 1 includes Fairfaxís Short Memorials.]

John Rushworth, Historical collections of private passages of state (8 vols. In 5, London, 1682-1701)

Scotland and the Commonwealth. Letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland, from August 1651 to December 1653, ed. Firth (Edinburgh, 1895)

Scotland and the Protectorate. Letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland from January 1654 to June 1659, ed. Firth (Edinburgh, 1899)

A collection of scarce and valuable tracts [Somers Tracts] (4 vols. from the 1st and 2nd eds.)

Stuart Tracts, 1603-1693, ed. Firth (Westminster, 1903) [Includes Vereís Commentaries and Fairfaxís Short Memorials]

A. S. P. Woodhouse, ed., Puritanism and Liberty: Being the Army Debates, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1951)

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Bishop Gilbert Burnet

Bishop Gilbert Burnet

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Thomas Birch, The Court and Times of Charles the First (2 vols., London, 1848)

Bishop Burnet’s History of His Own Time (4 vols., London, 1753)

Charles Harding Firth, Cromwell’s Army: A History of the English Soldier During the Civil Wars, the Commonwealth and the Protectorate (London, 1902)

—, The House of Lords during the Civil War (London, 1910)

—, The Last Years of the Protectorate, 1656-1658 (2 vols., London, 1909)

Charles James Fox, A History of the Early Part of the Reign of James the Second (Philadelphia, 1808)

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, The Fall of the Monarchy of Charles I. 1637-1649 (2 vols., London, 1882)

—, History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1656 (new edition, 4 vols., London, 1903)

—, History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649 (4 vols., London, 1910)

—, Prince Rupert at Lisbon (London, 1902)

Thomas May, The History of the Parliament of England, Which Began November 3, 1640 : With a Short and Necessary View of Some Precedent Years (new edition, Oxford, 1854)

Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society (London, 1667)

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Thomas Killigrew, from Hotson, The Commonwealth and Restoration Stage

Thomas Killigrew, from Hotson, The Commonwealth and Restoration Stage

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Studies and commentaries

Margaret Lewis Bailey, Milton and Jakob Boehme; A Study of German Mysticism in Seventeenth-Century England (New York, 1914)

Louise Fargo Brown, The Political Activities of the Baptists and Fifth Monarchy Men in England During the Interregnum (Washington, 1912)

Douglas Bush, English Literature in the Earlier Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1945)

H. Fernow, Milton’s Letters of State (Hamburg, 1903) [in German]

W. W. Greg, Pastoral Poetry & Pastoral Drama: A Literary Inquiry, With Special Reference to the Pre-Restoration Stage in England (London, 1906)

Leslie Hotson, The Commonwealth and Restoration Stage (Cambridge, 1928)

Rufus M. Jones, Spiritual Reformers in the 16th and 17th Century (London, 1914)

David Masson and John Bruce, The Quarrel Between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell: An Episode of the English Civil War (Camden Society, 1875)

Joel Elias Spingarn, A History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance (2nd ed., New York, 1908)


  1. C. H. Firth, A Plea for the Historical Teaching of History. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on November 9, 1904, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1905), 13.
  2. The following table gives the research notes for this section:
Short title/description Form Date Status Availability
Aristotle, ed. Bekker, 11 vols., Oxford, 1837 Print 1837 Available from
Aristotle, On Memory, trans. Beare Web Available from indicated source:
Aristotle, Meteorology, trans. Webster Web Available from indicated source:
Bal Print 2001 Under copyright $35
Bicknell (article) Print 1981 Under copyright
Birkin (DNB) Web 2004 Under copyright (Library subscription)
Buckingham Print 2007 Under copyright $235. Alternative: The Works of His Grace George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (2 vols., 1775)
Clarendon, humble petition Print n. d. Harleian Miscellany, vol. 7: 343-47
Clarendon, Life, Oxford, 1759 Print 1759 First Dublin edition (1759), 2nd edition (1760), 3rd edition (1761)
Clark Print 2007 Under copyright $39
Des Maiseaux, Life of Everemond [sic] Print 1714 2nd ed. “corrected and enlarged,” 3 vols., 1728
Dryden, Marriage A-la-Mode Print 1673 Available from
Dzelzainis (article) Print 2007 Under copyright $44
Hales, Golden Remains Print 1659 “Tract on Schism” in Jared Sparks, A Collection of Essays and Tracts on Theology, vol. 5, pt. 1: Tracts of the Ever Memorable John Hales (1825)
Lloyd Print 1674 Not available from The original Seasonable Discourse (4th ed., 1673) is available.
Locke Print 2010 Under copyright Transcription of Huntington Library MS:
Maber (DNB) Web 2004 Under copyright (Library subscription)
MacLeod (DNB) Web 2004 Under copyright (Library subscription)
Martz (article 1) Print 1978 Under copyright $12 used
Martz (article 2) Print 1989 Under copyright $11 used
Marvell (Margoliouth ed.) Print 1971 Under copyright $50 used
Marvell (Smith ed.) Print 2003, 2007 Under copyright $25
Marvell (Prose) Print 2003 Under copyright $59 used. Alternative: Grosart, ed., Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Andrew Marvell (4 vols.; London, 1872)
Primerose (1638) Print 1638 Not available from
Primerose (1640) Print 1640 Not available from
Primerose (1658) Print 1658 Available at &printsec=frontcover&output=reader
Primerose (1651) Print 1651 View-only at readform&id=9B0C5C07762566FD802573ED005C3DD5. Available via Early English Books Online (library subscription)
Saint-Évremond, Works (3 vols) Print 1728 Available from
Saint-Evremond, Letters Print 1930 Under copyright
Seaward (DNB) Web 2004 Under copyright (Library subscription)
Selden Print 1640 Joannis Seldeni jurisconsulti opera omnia . . . (3 vols., 1726, vol. 1, pp. 66+
Shakespeare Print 1974 Under copyright Many alternative editions available from
von Maltzahn Print 2005 Under copyright $67 used
Yardley (DNB) Web 2004 Under copyright (Library subscription)


  1. These guidelines, suggestions, and instructions are based on experience using the following tools:

Lenovo R61i laptop

  • CPU: Intel Pentium 32-bit dual processors, 1.73 GHz
  • 4 GB RAM
  • 320 GB HDD (298 GB effective capacity), 7200 rpm
  • 1280 x 800 digital color display
  • Pointing device (= mouse)
  • Windows 7 Professional
  • Broadband: 54Mbps; wireless LAN connection to cable modem
  • Web browser: Internet Explorer 9
  • Test repository: Kingston 4GB flash drive
  • Software
    • Adobe Reader, v. 9
    • Kindle for PC, v. 1.5.0
    • Microsoft Office Word 2007
    • calibre for Windows, v. 0.8.18
    • Norton Internet Security, v. 18.6 (don’t leave home without protection).

This is not the latest, not the fastest, not the most expensive or cheapest system. It’s adequate, and, despite the brand names, I’m not recommending particular products. If you need hardware or software, students and faculty can usually buy at an institutional price. The flash drive is sold for $6. I got mine free.