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SAULCAT - St Andrews University Library Catalogue

Citing references

It is standard practice to ensure that all sources of information used in a piece of writing are acknowledged by citing them in the text and listing the references at the end of the work.  Each reference should include enough information for the reader of the work to identify and find the material to which you have referred.

Different disciplines use different referencing styles.  Below are some links to information on the main styles.  You should, however, check your student handbook or with your tutor for the style the School recommends.

General information

The University Library stocks several publications which provide guidance on citing references, including the International Standard - Information and documentation - guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources (ISO 690:2010).  Search SAULCAT to find out what else is available.

Referencing styles

StyleSubject areasGuides
APA (American Psychological Association) Psychology, Education, Social Sciences Online style tutorials from the American Psychological Association
Chicago History, Humanities Chicago Manual of Style Online
Harvard Social Sciences Harvard system of referencing, Anglia Ruskin University
MLA (Modern Languages Association) Literature, Arts & Humanities MLA formatting and style guide from Purdue Online Writing Lab
Turabian All subjects Brief style guide
MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) Humanities Downloadable MHRA style guide

Reference management software

Bibliographic management software allows you to create a bibliography, or list of references, by importing references from text files or online databases and automatically formatting it in a preferred style. There are several different versions.


University staff can download, install and use EndNote software on any University computer.  The software can be downloaded from the IT Services software webpage, University login is required.

EndNote X4 is installed on all student pc's.

The licence does not cover personal computers.  However, both staff and students can purchase a copy at a reduced cost.

EndNote Web

This is an online version of EndNote Desktop which can be accessed via the Web of Knowledge database from anywhere you have an internet connection.  This site allows you to share EndNote libraries with other registered users.


This is a web-based reference management software, available from anywhere you have an internet connection.


Guides are available to help you use this software:

The Academic Liaison Team are happy to help with any enquiries you may have regarding Reference Management Software.

Updated 22 October 2012

Open book