Anthony F Lang, Jr - Professor and Head of School


Anthony F Lang, Jr holds a Chair in International Political Theory in the School of International Relations at the University of St Andrews where he founded the Centre for Global Constitutionalism.

He received his PhD in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1996. He was an assistant professor of political science at the American University in Cairo, Egypt from 1996 to 2000. From 2000 to 2003, he served as a programme officer at the Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs, where he directed programmes on ethics and the use of force, religion and US foreign policy, and ethics in higher education.

He has served as president of the International Ethics section of the International Studies Association (2003 to 2004), programme chair of the Human Rights Section of ISA (2006 to 2008), and Chair of the International Ethics section Book Prize Committee (2009 to 2011). He currently serves as the Chair of the Academic Freedom Committee of the International Studies Association.

He serves on the editorial boards of Global ConstitutionalismJournal of International Political Theory and Ethics & International Affairs. He is also commissioning editor of the new series, Global Ethics, from Routledge Publishers.

Research areas

Professor Lang's research focuses on the intersection of ethics, politics, and law at the global level.

The first stream of this research focuses on global constitutionalism, or how various aspects of the international political and legal order relate to the rule of law and an institutional balance of power. His current work in this area focuses on the idea of constituent power at the global level, with a focus on political protests and NGO activism.

A second stream of this research focuses on international law and institutions, especially international criminal law and the International Criminal Court.

A third stream of this research focuses on broader questions of responsibility, such as the responsibility of individuals to advance and understand scientific claims in global public policy debates.

His previous work has addressed international political theory, with a particular focus on questions of agency, responsibility and punishment. Professor Lang has explored these issues in the context of various global practices such as humanitarian intervention, international security strategy, war crimes, and counter terrorism policy. In this research stream, he has explored how is it that various agents in the international system are held responsible and/or accountable for policies at the global level. An outcome to this research is a focus on whether or not agents in the international system are punished when they are held responsible, and who ought to be punishing them.

He has also worked on the political theory of Hannah Arendt, the IR theory of Hans Morgenthau, and humanitarian intervention.



Edited books


Peer reviewed articles
  • "Thomas Hobbes and a 'Chastened' Global Constitution: Contesting the Boundaries of the Law" Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19, 1 (January 2016): 103-119.
  • "The Impact of the Security Council on the Efficacy of the International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect" with Aidan Hehir, Criminal Law Forum 26, 1 (March 2015): 153-179.
  • "From Revolutions to Constitutions: The Case of Egypt", International Affairs 89, 2 (March 2013): 345-364.
  • "Ethics, Justice and Security" in Robert Denmark, ed. International Studies Encyclopedia, Volume III (Wiley Blackwell, 2010): 1619-1638.
  • "The Just War Tradition and the Question of Authority", Journal of Military Ethics 8, 3 (2009): 202-216.
  • "Conflicting Rules: Global Constitutionalism and the Kosovo Intervention", Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 3, 2 (2009): 185-204.
  • "Punishment and Peace: Critical Reflections on Countering Terrorism" Millennium 36, 3 (May 2008): 493-511.
  • "The Violence of Rules: Rethinking the 2003 War against Iraq" Contemporary Politics 13, 3 (September 2007): 257-276.
  • "Crime and Punishment: Holding States Accountable" Ethics & International Affairs 21, 2 (2007): 239-257.
  • "Punitive Justifications or Just Punishment? An Ethical Reading of Coercive Diplomacy" Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19, 3 (2006): 389-403.
  • "The Role(s) of Rules: Some Conceptual Clarifications" with Nicholas Rengger and William Walker, International Relations 20 (2006): 274-294.
  • "Responsibility in the International System: Reading U. S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East" European Journal of International Relations, 5, 1 (March 1999): 67-107.
  • "Between Theory and History: The Remains of the Day in the International Relations Classroom" with James M. Lang, PS: Politics and Political Science, 31, 2 (June 1998): 209-215.
Other journal articles
  • "Just War as Political Theory: Intention, Cause and Authority" Political Theory 44, 2 (April 2016): 289-303.
  • "Thomas Hobbes: Theorist of the Law" with Gabriella Slomp Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19, 1 (January 2016): 1-11 Hard Times: Progressive Narratives, Historical Contingency and the Fate of Global Constitutionalism" with Jeffery L. Dunoff, Antje Wiener, Mattias Kumm and James Tully, Global Constitutionalism 4, 1 (2015): 1-17.
  • "How Large is the World of Global Constitutionalism?" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism 3, 1 (2014): 1-8.
  • "Interdisciplinarity: Challenges and Opportunities" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism, 2, 1 (2013): 1-5.
  • "Global Constitutionalism: Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro, and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism 1, 1 (2012): 1-15.
  • "Kant and the Supreme Proprietor: A Response to Howard Williams" Kantian Review 15, 2 (2010): 78-89.
  • "The Politics of Punishing Terrorists" Ethics & International Affairs 24, 1 (2010): 3-12.
Online articles

Book reviews

  • Review of Joe Hoover, Reconstructing Human Rights: A Pragmatist and Pluralist Inquiry in Global Ethics in International Affairs 93, 1 (May 2017): 717-718
  • Review of Maria Fanis, Secular Morality and International Security: American and British Decisions about War in International Studies Review, 16, 4 (2014): 314-316
  • Review of Global Good Samaritans by Alison Brysk, in Perspectives on Politics 10, 1 (March 2012): 210-212
  • Review of The Problem of Harm in World Politics: Theoretical Investigations by Andrew Linklater in International Affairs, 87, 6 (2011): 1508-1510.
  • Review of Morality and War: Can War be Just in the Twenty-First Century by David Fisher, in The Expository Times 123, 3 (2011): 151-152
  • Review of The Price of Peace, by Charles Reed and David Ryall, Journal of Military Ethics 7, 2 (2008): 157-159
  • Review of William Connolly: Democracy, Pluralism and Political Theory, by Samuel Chambers and Terrell Carver, International Affairs 84, 4 (July 2008): 831-833
  • Review of Iraq: People, History, Politics, by Gareth Stansfield, International Affairs 83, 4 (July 2007): 816-817
  • Review of Legitimacy in International Society, by Ian Clark, Politics and Ethics Review 2, 1 (2006): 93-95
  • Review of Justice Without Borders: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism and Patriotism, by Kok-Chor Tan, International Studies Review, 7, 3 (October 2005): 463-465.
  • Review of Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past by Kimberly Zisk Marten. Contemporary Security Policy, 26, 2 (August 2005): 381-384.
  • Review of Beyond the Handshake: Multilateral Cooperation in the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, 1991-1996 by Dalia Dassa Kaye.  International Journal of Middle East Studies 36, 3 (August 2004): 524-525.
  • Review of War is a Force that Gives us Meaning by Christopher Hedges. Ethics & International Affairs 17, 2 (Fall 2003): 127-129.
  • "Global Governance and Genocide in Rwanda" Review of Eyewitness to Genocide by Michael Barnett, Peacemaking in Rwanda by Bruce D. Jones, and A People Betrayed by L. R. Malvern.  Ethics & International Affairs 16, 1 (Spring 2002): 143-150.
  • Review of Ethics and Foreign Policy edited by Margot Smith. International Affairs 78, 3 (July 2002): 609-610.
  • "The Ethics of Diplomacy" Review of Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem by Boutros Boutros Ghali and The Process by Uri Savir.  Ethics & International Relations 13 (1999): 230-234.
  • Review of Globalization and the Middle East, edited by Toby Dodge and Richard Higgot. International Affairs 78, 4 (November 2002)
  • Review of Re-envisioning Peacekeeping by Francois Debrix. Ethics & International Affairs 15, 1 (Spring 2001): 222-225

Chapters in edited volumes

  • "Constitutions are the Answer! Hannah Arendt, Revolution and the Arab Uprisings" in Kai Hiruta, ed., Hannah Arendt on Freedom, Liberation and Revolution (London: Palgrave, forthcoming)
  • "Climate Change and Cosmopolitan Responsibilities" with Helga Halfadattatoir in Richard Beardsworth, Garrett Wallace Brown, and Richard Shapcott eds., The State and Cosmopolitan Responsibilities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming)
  • "Violence and International Political Theory" in Chris Brown and Robyn Eckersley, eds., Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming)
  • "Responsibility and Climate Change: Reframing Norms, Practices, and Community" with Helga Haflidadottir in Hannes Hansen-Magnusen and Antje Vetterlein, eds., Responsibility in Global Politics (forthcoming)
  • "Justice and (Global Constitutionalism): The International Criminal Court in the Global Order" with Andrea Birdsall in Kurt Mills and Melissa LaBonte, eds., Human Rights and Justice (London: Routledge, forthcoming)
  • "A Constitutionalizing Global Order: An Introduction" with Antje Wiener, eds., Handbook on Global Constitutionalism (London: Edward Elgar, 2017): 1-22
  • "The International Criminal Court and Global Constitutionalism" with Andrea Birdsall in Anthony F Lang, Jr and Antje Wiener, eds., Handbook on Global Constitutionalism (London: Edward Elgar Press, 2017): 383-394
  • "Hugo Grotius" in Cian Driscoll and Daniel Brustetter, eds., Just War Thinkers: From Cicero to Today (London: Routledge, 2017): 128-143
  • "Rules, Power, and Constitutions: Following Onuf" in Harry Gould, ed., The Art of World-Making: Nicholas Greenwood Onuf and his Critics (London: Routledge, 2017): 192-209
  • "Global Constituent Power: Protests and Human Rights" in Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray, eds., Protecting Human Rights in an Age of Uncertainty (London: Routledge, 2017): 19-33
  • "The Philosopher and the Discipline" in Richard Ned Lebow, Peer Schouten, and Hidemi Suganami eds., The Return of the Theorists: Dialogues with Great Thinkers in International Relations (London: Palgrave, 2016): 44-56
  • "Shared Political Responsibility" in Andre Knollkaemper and Dov Jacobs, eds.,  Distribution of Responsibilities in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015): 62-86
  • "Between: International Law in the Fiction of China Mieville" in Caroline Edwards and Antonio Venezia, eds., China Mieville: Critical Essays (Kent: Glyphi, 2015): 221-245
  • "Constitutionalism and the Law: Evaluating the Security Council" in Trudy Fraser and Vesselin Popovski, eds., The Security Council as Global Legislator (London: Routledge Press, 2014): 12-33
  • "Arendt and the Question of Revolution" in Patrick Hayden, ed., Hannah Arendt: Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2014): 167-184
  • "Global Constitutionalism as Middle Ground Ethics" in Cornelia Navari, ed., Ethical Reasoning in International Affairs: Arguments from the Middle Ground (London: Palgrave, 2013): 106-126
  • "Narrative Authority" in Anthony F Lang, Jr., Cian O’Driscoll, and John Williams, eds., The Just War Tradition: The Practice of Authority and Authority in Practice (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013): 135-156
  • "Punishing Genocide: A Critical Reading of the International Court of Justice" in Tracy Isaacs and Richard Vernon, eds., Accountability for Collective Wrongdoing (Cambridge University Press, 2011): 93-118
  • "Authority and the Problem of Non-State Actors" in Eric Heinze and Brent Steele, eds., Just War and Non-State Actors (Routledge, 2010): 47-71
  • "Humanitarian Intervention" in Duncan Bell, ed., Ethics and World Politics (Oxford University Press, 2010): 324-341
  • "Humanitarian Intervention" in Patrick Hayden, ed., The Ashgate Research Companion to Ethics and International Affairs (Ashgate, 2009): 133-150
  • "Evil, Agency and Punishment" in Renee Jeffery, ed., Confronting Evil: Ethical Responses to Problems of Moral Agency (Palgrave, 2008): 89-114
  • "A Realist in the Utopian City: Boutros Boutros-Ghali’s Ethical Framework and its Impact" in Kent Kille, ed., UN Secretary-General as a Moral Authority: Ethics and Religion in International Leadership (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2007): 265-298
  • "Morgenthau, Agency and Aristotle" in Michael Williams, ed., Reconsidering Realism: The Legacy of Hans J. Morgenthau in International Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007): 18-41
  • "Normative Causes and Consequences: Understanding and Evaluating the War with Iraq" in Raymond Hinnebusch and Rick Fawn, eds., The Iraq War: Causes and Consequences (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006): 269-282
  • "Governance and Political Protest: Hannah Arendt on Global Political Protest" in Anthony F Lang, Jr and John Williams, eds., Hannah Arendt and International Relations: Reading Across the Lines (New York: Palgrave, 2005): 179-198.
  • "Punitive Intervention: Enforcing Justice or Creating Conflict?" in Mark Evans, ed., Just War Theory: A Reappraisal (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005): 50-70
  • "Responsibility and Agency: The UN and the Fall of Srebrenica" in Toni Erskine, ed., Can Institutions Have Responsibilities? (London: Palgrave Press, 2003): 183-206.
  • "Conflicting Narratives, Conflicting Moralities: The United Nations and the Failure of Humanitarian Intervention" in Francois Debrix, ed., Language, Agency and Politics in a Constructed World (Armonk, M. E. Sharpe, 2003): 171-195

Other publications

  • "Donald Trump Must Look Beyond Fortress America to Global Republic of Laws", The Herald, 20 January 2017.
  • "Je ne suis Charlie Hebdo", Arc of the Universe, 9 January 2015.
  • "A Cosmopolitan take on the Referendum", Arc of the Universe, 16 September 2014.
  • "Constructing Equal and Vigorous Citizens: The Role of Legislative Politics" EUI Working Papers RSCAS2014/36 (Florence: European University Institute, 2014).
  • "Phronesis, Morgenthau and Diplomacy" e-international relations, 7 November 2013.
  • "Constitutional Mythologies" Scottish Constitutional Futures Forum, 9 March 2013.
  • "Egypt: Liberalism and Intervention" Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs OnLine Report, 3 February 2011.
  • "Authority, Afghanistan and Obama" PBS Religion and Ethics Weekly, 24 June 2010.
  • "Good Ideas are from Anywhere: Natural Law and Global Constitutionalism" 30 July 2009.
  • "Gaza and Just War" PBS Religion and Ethics Weekly Website, 22 January 2009.
  • Entry on "William Connolly" for Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine, edited by Karla Pollmann and Willemine Otten (Oxford University Press, forthcoming).
  • "Why International Politics is Just Like the Game of Golf" The Scotsman, 9 October 2007; reprinted in The Providence Journal Providence Rhode Island US, as "Of Golf and International Relations" 16 November 2007.
  • "Rules for Globalization’s Unruliness" Commentary on, 16 July 2007 at .
  • "A Practicum in Idealistic Theory: How an Egyptian Coptic Christian was Plucked from Academic to Sow Peace in the Mideast and then Run the United Nations" Notre Dame Magazine (Winter 2006-2007): 30-35
  • Entries on “Appeasement” and “Internationalism” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd ed. , edited by William Darity (Farmington Hills: Macmillian Reference, 2008)
  • "Democracy Cannot be Imposed by Force" Carnegie Ethics Online, posted on 7 August 2006.
  • "Almighty Decisions Made on a Sunday" [response to Mearsheimer and Walt book, The Israel Lobby] The Times Higher, 7 April 2006.
  • "Imposing the Best System by Force?" for IslamOnLine, posted 25 June 2006.
  • "Commentary: Battlefield Ethics" for Religion and Ethics Newsweekly, posted 2 June 2006.
  • "Evaluating Middle East Foreign Policy Since 9/11" Middle East Policy 9, 4 (December 2002): 99-100.
  • "Religious Traditions of Peace in Times of War" Conference report from a workshop on Religion and Peacemaking, March 10-11, 2003, Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, New York City.
  • "The Catholic Church and American Foreign Policy" Conference report from a workshop on the Catholic Church and US Foreign Policy, March 7-8, 2002, Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, New York City.
  • "The Ethics of US Foreign Policy in the Middle East" Conference report from a workshop on US foreign policy in the Middle East, February 15, 2001, Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, New York City.

Works in progress

  • Global Constitutionalism: Power, Law and Limits
Edited Books
  • The Politics of International Political Theory edited with Mathias Albert (London: Palgrave, forthcoming, 2018)
  • "Responsibility, Virtue and Global Politics"
  • "Global Constituent Power"
  • "The American Way of Intervention" with Michael Boyle



  • Introduction to International Political Theory
  • International Relations Theory
  • Ethics and the Use of Force
  • Global Constitutionalism
  • Law and Society in the Middle East

Research students

First supervisor

  • Holly Marshall (Split with Professor Patrick Hayden)

Second supervisor

PhD supervision topics

Topics include:

  • International political theory
  • Global Constitutionalism
  • State responsibility
  • Humanitarian intervention.