Professor Richard Whatmore

Professor Richard Whatmore

(PhD Cantab.) FRHist.S


Contact Details

Telephone - +44 (0)1334 462884
Fax - +44 (0)1334 462914



Teaching and Research Interests

I came to St Andrews in 2013 from the University of Sussex, where I was Professor of Intellectual History and the History of Political Thought. My research and teaching cover the following topics: Early Modern and Modern Intellectual History (including Politics, International Relations, Political Economy and Religion); Theories of Empire, Democracy and War; Enlightenment and Revolution; Republican Diaspora; Small States and Failed States; Relations between Britain and Europe; Political Cartoons.   

Academic Administration

I am currently co-director of the St Andrews Institute of Intellectual History, convenor of the M Litt in Intellectual History, editor of the journals History of European Ideas and Global Intellectual History (Taylor and Francis), a member of The Bentham Committee (UCL), and Subject Chair of the Arts and Humanities for SCOPUS (Elsevier). I also serve on the boards of several academic journals and am chairman of The Thomas Paine Society.


Main Publications

Books and edited books

  • Republicanism and the French Revolution: An Intellectual History of Jean-Baptiste Say’s Political Economy (Oxford University Press, 2000)
  • Against War and Empire: Geneva, Britain and France in the Eighteenth Century (Yale University Press, 2012)
  • What is Intellectual History? (Polity Press, 2015)
  • Economy, Polity, and Society: Essays in British Intellectual History, 1750-1950 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), edited with Stefan Collini and Brian Young
  • History, Religion, and Culture: Essays in British Intellectual History, 1750-1950 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), edited with Stefan Collini and Brian Young
  • Advances in Intellectual History (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), edited with Brian Young
  • Genève lieu d’Angleterre, 1725-1814 (Editions Slatkine: Travaux sur la Suisse des Lumières, 2009), edited with Valérie Cossy and Béla Kapossy
  • Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations, or Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns (Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, 2008), edited with Béla Kapossy
  • Micheli Du Crest’s Discours sur le gouvernement de Genève (1735) (Editions Slatkine: Travaux sur la Suisse des Lumières, 2011), edited with Gabriella Silvestrini, Kenneth Goodwin, and Guillaume Poisson
  • David Hume: International Library of Essays in the History of Social and Political Thought (Ashgate, 2013), edited with Knud Haakonssen
  • Intellectual History, Critical Concepts in Historical Studies Series (Taylor and Francis, 2015), 4 volumes
  • Companion to Intellectual History (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016), edited with Brian Young
  • Commerce and Peace in the Enlightenment (Cambridge University Press, 2017), edited with Béla Kapossy and Isaac Nakhimovsky
  • Markets, Morals and Politics. Jealousy of Trade and the History of Political Thought (Harvard University Press, 2018), edited with Béla Kapossy, Isaac Nakhimovsky and Sophus Reinert

Articles and chapters

  • ‘L’Échec de la representation et l’intérêt pour l'Écosse dans les années 1790’, in , Les Défis de la representation. Langages, pratiques et figuration du gouvernment eds. Manuela Albertone and Dario Castiglione (Classiques Garnier, 2018), 141-164
  • ‘A note on Donald Winch’, Revue d’histoire de la pensée économique, 5/1 (2018), 19-22
  • ‘Donald Winch, Adam Smith, and Intellectual History’, Adam Smith Review, 11 (2018), xii-xx.
  • 'Commerce, constitutions, and the manners of a nation: Etienne Clavière's revolutionary political economy, 1788-1793', History of European Ideas, 22 (1996), 351-68
  • 'From Constitution-building to the Reformation of Manners: Three Theories of Modern Citizenship in France, 1763-1793', in I. Hampsher-Monk, ed., Contemporary Political Problems (Belfast, 1996), 1234-1242
  • 'The Weber Thesis: unproven yet unrefuted', in W. Lamont, ed., Historical Controversies (University College London Press, 1998), 95-108
  • ‘Republican Political Economy on the Eve of the French Revolution’, working paper 34, Forum for Comparative Political Economy Studies (Exeter, 1998), 23 pp
  • 'Everybody's Business: Jean-Baptiste Say's General Fact conception of Political Economy', History of Political Economy, 30 (1998), 451-468
  • 'Jean-Baptiste Say's Republican Political Economy', History of Political Thought, 19 (1998), 439-456
  • 'Good books and bad morals’: Jean-Baptiste Say's assessment of the French Revolution’, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 378 (1999), 303-18
  • ‘Les fondations intellectuelles de la politique des Girondins’, Annales Historiques de la Révolution Française, 75 (2000), no. 3, 1-26, with James Livesey
  • ‘L’Amitié de grands Etats est leur plus sur appui’: the small state dilemma in Genevan political economy, 1762-1798,’ Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte (Revue Suisse d’Histoire), 50 (2000), 353-72
  • 'A gigantic manliness: Thomas Paine's republicanism in the 1790s', in Collini, Whatmore, and Young, eds., Economy, Polity and Society (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 135-157
  • ‘Rousseau’s Readers’, History of European Ideas, 27/2 (2001), 317-331
  • ‘Adam Smith’s contribution to the French Revolution’, Past and Present, 175 (2002), 65-89
  • ‘Say et Clavière’, in Jean-Pierre Potier and André Tiran, eds., Jean-Baptiste Say: Nouveaux regards sur son œuvre (Economica, Paris, 2003), 714-34
  • ‘The Politics of Political Economy from Rousseau to Constant’, in M. Bevir and F. Trentman, eds., Markets in Historical Contexts. Ideas and Politics in the Modern World (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 46-69
  • ‘Dupont de Nemours et la politique révolutionnaire’, Revue française d’histoire des idées politiques, 20 (2004), 334-349
  • ‘Democrats and Republicans in Restoration France’, European Political Theory, 3 (2004), 38-52
  • ‘British Radicalism in the 1790s’, History of European Ideas, 31 (2005), 428-432
  • ‘Venturi and republicanism in eighteenth-century Geneva’, in M. Albertone, ed. Il repubblicanesimo moderno. L'idea di repubblica nella riflessione storica di Franco Venturi (Bibliopolis, Naples, 2006), 385-402
  • ‘Rousseau and the représentants: the politics of the Lettres écrites de la montagne’, Modern Intellectual History, 3 (2006), 1-29
  • ‘Intellectual History and the History of Political Thought’, in Whatmore and Young, eds., Advances in Intellectual History (Palgrave, London, 2006), 109-129
  • ‘French perspectives on British politics, 1688-1734’ in J.-P. Genet & F.-J. Ruggiu, eds., Les Idées passent-elles la Manche? (Press de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris, 2007), 83-98
  • ‘Etienne Dumont, the British Constitution, and the French Revolution’, Historical Journal, 50/1 (2007), 23-47
  • ‘Emer de Vattel’s Mélanges de littérature, de morale et de politique (1760)’ History of European Ideas, 34/1 (2008), 77-103, with Béla Kapossy
  • ‘Commerce and Enlightenment’, Intellectual History Review, 18/2 (2008), 283-306, with Knud Haakonssen
  • ‘The origins of the French Revolution’, History of Political Thought, 29/4 (2008), 717-729
  • ‘Treason and Despotism: the impact of the French Revolution upon Britain’, History of European Ideas, 34/4 (2008), 583-586
  • ‘Geneva: An English Enclave. A Contextual Introduction’, in Cossie, Kapossy and Whatmore eds., Genève lieu d’Angleterre, 1725-1814 (Slatkine, Geneva, 2009), 11-35
  • ‘The Role of Britain in the Political Thought of the Genevan Exiles of 1782’, in Cossie, Kapossy and Whatmore eds., Genève, lieu d’Angleterre, 1725-1814 (Slatkine, Geneva, 2009), 185-197
  • ‘‘Neither masters nor slaves’. Small states and Empire in the Long Eighteenth Century’, in D. Kelly ed., Lineages of Empire. The Historical Roots of British Imperial Thought, (Oxford University Press and Proceedings of the British Academy no. 155, 2009), 53-81
  • ‘The French and American Revolutions in Comparative Perspective’ in M. Albertone & A. De Francesco eds., Rethinking the Atlantic World. Europe and America in the Age of Democratic Revolutions (Palgrave, 2009), 219-238
  • ‘Étienne Dumont et le Benthamisme: la démocratie dans les petits États’, in E. de Champs & J.-P. Cléro, eds. ‘Bentham et la France. Fortune et infortune de l’utilitarisme’, Studies of Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 2009), 111-127
  • ‘Una tigre che non ruggisce più: politica e economia a Ginevra nel XVIII secolo’, in M. Albertone, ed. L’economia come linguaggio della politica nell’Europa del Settecento (Turin University Press, Annali Feltrinelli, 2009), 257-281
  • ‘Vattel, Britain and Peace in Europe’, Grotiana, 31/1 (2010), 85-107
  • ‘Enlightenment Political Philosophy’ in G. Klosko, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the History of Political Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 2011), 296-318
  • ‘Shelburne and Perpetual Peace: Small States, Commerce and International Relations within the Bowood Circle’ in An Enlightenment Statesman in Whig Britain: Lord Shelburne (1737-1805) in Context, eds., Nigel Aston and Clarissa Campbell Orr (Boydell & Brewer, 2011), 249-273
  • ‘War, trade and empire: the dilemmas of French liberal political economy, 1780-1816’, in French Liberalism. From Montesquieu to the Present, eds., Antoon Braeckman, Raf Geenens, and Helena Rosenblatt (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 169-191
  • ‘Burke’s Political Economy’ in The Cambridge Companion to Edmund Burke, eds. Christopher Insole and David Dwan (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 80-91
  • ‘The attempts to transfer the Genevan Academy to Ireland and to America, 1782-1795’, The Historical Journal, 56/2 (2013), 345-368, with Jennifer Powell-McNutt
  • ‘Luxury, commerce, and the rise of political economy' in James Harris, ed. The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford University Press, 2013), 575-595
  • ‘Shedding blood for ancient and glorious liberty: the Genevan context of Sismondi’s early politics’, in eds. Béla Kapossy and Pascal Bridel, Sismondi: Républicanisme modern et libéralisme critique (Slatkine, 2013), 1-23
  • ‘Thomas Paine’, in Constitutions and the Classics: A Collection of Essays on Selected Authors from Fortescue to Dicey, ed. Denis Galligan (Oxford University Press, 2015), 414-437
  • ‘Rousseau and Revolutions’ in Revolutionary Moments. Reading Revolutionary Texts, ed. Rachel Hammersley (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), 55-63
  • A lover of peace more than liberty.’ The Genevan response to Rousseau’s politics’ in Avi Lifshitz, ed., Engaging with Rousseau: Reception and Interpretation from the Eighteenth Century to the Present (Cambridge University Press, 2016), 1-16
  • ‘Introduction’ to J. G. A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment (Princeton University Press, 2016), xii-xxii
  • ‘Geneva and Scotland: the Calvinist Legacy and After’, Intellectual History Review, 26/3 (2016), 391-410
  • ‘Introduction: power, prosperity, and peace in enlightenment thought’, in Kapossy, Nakhimovsky and Whatmore, eds., Commerce and Peace in the Enlightenment (Cambridge University Press, 2017), 12-35
  • ‘Liberty, war and empire. Overcoming the rich state-poor state problem, 1789-1815’, in Kapossy, Nakhimovsky and Whatmore, eds., Commerce and Peace in the Enlightenment (Cambridge University Press, 2017), 286-320
  • ‘Saving republics by moving republicans. Britain, Ireland and ‘New Geneva’ in the age of revolutions’, History. The Journal of the Historical Association, 102/3 (2017), 386-413
  • 'Global possibilities in intellectual history. A note on practice', Global Intellectual History, 1/2 (2017), 18-29, with Knud Haakonssen
  • ‘Gibbon and republicanism’, in The Cambridge Companion to Edward Gibbon, eds., Karen O’Brien and Brian Young (Cambridge University Press, 2018), 28-46, with Béla Kapossy
  • 'Benjamin Vaughan and the consequences of anonymity: An introduction to Kenneth E. Carpenter’s Benjamin Vaughan’s Contributions Unveiled: A Bibliography', History of European Ideas, 3/42 (2018), 1-5

Teaching Duties

I teach on the following Honours courses:
MO3214: The Decline and Fall of the French Old Regime, 1715-1789
MO3049: Political Thought From Machiavelli to Tocqueville
MO4970: Revolutions and Empires, 1776-1848

I also contribute to the following team-taught courses:
MO2008: Scotland, Britain and Empire, c.1500-2000
HI2001: History as a Discipline: Development & Key Concepts

And to the following postgraduate programmes:
M Litt in Intellectual History
M. Litt in Early Modern History
Postgraduate Courses in Scottish Historical Studies

PhD Students

Lasse Andersen, ‘The Land Question in Nineteenth-Century Political Economy’
M. Pollock, ‘Brougham and international relations’
A. Westwell, ‘Political tactics in radical thought during the French Revolution’
Cailean Gallagher, ‘Jacobitism in Scottish political thought’
Jason Isbit, ‘Benjamin Vaughan and the Shelburne Circle’

Completed PhD students

M. Kim, 'Democracy and representation in the French Directory'
D. Coates, ‘Edmund Burke and the Regicide Peace’
P. Moorhouse, ‘Joseph Townsend and an end to poverty’
L. Long, 'Britain, France and cosmopolitan empire in the 1790s'
R. Hammerlsey, ‘The Political Thought of the Cordeliers Club’ 
C. Carpenter, ‘Polytheism in Benjamin Constant’s De la Religion’ 
A. Mansfield, ‘Chevalier Michael Ramsay’s Essai de politique (1719) and Jacobitism’ 
P. Robinson, ‘The meaning and reception of David Williams’ ‘Lessons to a Young Prince (1790)’ 
K. Grint, ‘James Mill’s Commonplace Books and their intellectual context’ 
P. Yigit, ‘John’s Brown’s political thought and the future of Europe’ 
P. Price, ‘Providence and political economy: Josiah Tucker’s providential argument for free trade’



Main Publications