Frank Lorenz Müller
Professor Frank Lorenz Müller

Professor Frank Lorenz Müller

Staatsexamen (Berlin), DPhil (Oxon.), FRHistS

Contact Details

E-mail -
Telephone - +44 (0)1334 462892
Fax - +44 (0)1334 462914

Research Profile on Research@StAndrews

Currently serving as Dean of Arts and Divinity; not offering any undergraduate teaching



Teaching and Research Interests

I studied History, English and Philosophy at Berlin and completed a doctorate in Modern History at Oxford University in 1999. Before my appointment to a lectureship at St Andrews in 2002 I held a Junior Research Fellowship at University College Oxford.

My teaching covers various aspects of European history from the late 18th century to the Second World War. I am particularly interested in the political and cultural history of Britain and the German lands as well as in their mutual relationship. My research focuses on nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, militarism, foreign policy and the role of European monarchy after 1814. I look forward to discussing research projects falling into these areas with potential postgraduate students.

Growing out of my work on the biography of the German Emperor Frederick III I developed a wider interest in the issues associated with succession and royal heirs in the constitutional monarchies of 19th-century Europe. An AHRC-funded five-year project allowed me to explore this topic in greater depth. This has led to a number of publications and the launching of the Palgrave series “Studies in Modern Monarchy”. I am now working on the legacy of monarchy in interwar Europe.


Main Publications


  • Die Thronfolger. Macht und Zukunft der Monarchie im 19. Jahrhundert (Munich: Siedler, 2019) [Details]
  • Royal Heirs in Imperial Germany. The Future of Monarchy in Nineteenth-Century Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg (London: Palgrave, 2017) [Details]
  • Der 99-Tage-Kaiser. Friedrich III. von Preußen: Prinz, Monarch, Mythos (Munich: Siedler, 2013) [Details]
  • Our Fritz. Emperor Frederick III and the Political Culture of Imperial Germany (Cambridge/Mass: Harvard University Press, 2011) [Details]
  • Britain and the German Question. Perceptions of Nationalism and Political Reform, 1830-1863 (Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002) [Details]
  • Die Revolution von 1848/49 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2012 [4th ed.]) [Details]

Edited Volumes

  • (with Heidi Mehrkens) Royal Heirs and the Uses of Soft Power in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Palgrave: London, 2016) [Details] .
  • (with Heidi Mehrkens) Sons and Heirs. Monarchical Succession and the Political Culture in 19th-Century Europe (Palgrave: Basingstoke, 2015) [Details]
  • (with Dominik Geppert) Imperial Sites of Memory. Commemorating Colonial Rule in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Manchester University Press: Manchester, 2015) [Details]


  • “Man heiratet für sich und nicht für die anderen.” Alexander von Hessen, Julie von Hauke und die Überwindung eines Skandals, in: Joachim Horn, Alexander Jehn, Hans Sarkowicz and Rainer von Hessen (eds), Die Battenbergs. Eine europäische Familie (Wiesbaden, 2019), 93-109
  • 'Winning their Trust and Affection': Royal Heirs and the Uses of Soft Power in Nineteenth-Century Europe, in: F. L. Müller/H. Mehrkens (eds), Royal Heirs and the Uses of Soft Power in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Palgrave: London, 2016), 1-19
  • Stabilizing a ‘Great Historic System‘ in the Nineteenth Century? Royal Heirs and Succession in an Age of Monarchy, in: H. Mehrkens/F. L. Müller (eds): Sons and Heirs. Monarchical Succession and the Political Culture in 19th-Century Europe (Palgrave: Basingstoke, 2015), 1-16
  • Der Kanzler im Kampf gegen eine liberale Zukunft: Bismarck und Kaiser Friedrich III., Jahrbuch zur Liberalismus-Forschung 27 (2015), 27-47
  • The German Monarchies, in: M. Jefferies (ed.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Imperial Germany (Ashgate: Farnham, 2015), 55-73
  • ‘Before the West. Rudolf von Gneist’s English Utopia’, in: R. Bavaj/M. Steber (eds): Germany and The West‘. The History of a Modern Concept (Berghahn: New York/Oxford, 2015), 152-166
  • (with Dominik Geppert) ‘Beyond National Memory. Nora’s Lieux de Mémoire across an Imperial World’, in: D. Geppert/F. L. Müller (eds): Imperial Sites of Memory. Commemorating Colonial Rule in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Manchester University Press: Manchester, 2015), 1-18
  • 'The Prince, the Crypt, and the Historians: Emperor Friedrich III and the Continuity of Monarchical Geschichtspolitik in Imperial Germany', German Studies Review 35, 3 (2012), 521 - 540
  • Liberaler "Volkskaiser" und "hochgemuther Recke": die Mythen um Kaiser Friedrich III (Friedrichsruher Beiträge, vol. 42 – Friedrichsruh: Otto-von-Bismarck-Stiftung, 2012)
  • ‘”Perhaps also useful for our election campaign”: The Parliamentary Impasse of the Late Wilhelmine State and the British Constitutional Crisis, 1909-1911’, in: D. Geppert/R. Gerwarth (eds): Wilhelmine Germany and Edwardian Britain. Essays on Cultural Affinity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 67-87
  • ‘Man, Myth and Monuments: The Legacy of Otto von Bismarck (1866-1998)’, European History Quarterly 38 (2008), 626-636
  • The Spectre of a People in Arms: The Prussian Government and the Militarisation of German Nationalism, 1859-1864’, English Historical Review cxxii (2007), 82-104
  • Palmerston, Schwarzenberg and the Struggle for a New German Order’, in: D. Brown/M. Taylor (eds): Palmerston Studies II (Southampton: Hartley Institute, 2007), 97-118
  • "The Enlightened Views of the Prussian Monarch." Preussen als Hoffnungsträger britischer Reformvorstellungen für Deutschland, 1834–1863’, in: B. Becker/V. Czech/J. Luh (eds): Preussen, Deutschland und Europa, 1701–2001, (Groningen: INOS, 2003), 197-215
  • Imperialist Ambitions in Vormärz and Revolutionary Germany: the Agitation for German Settlement Colonies Overseas, 1840-1849’, German History 17 (1999), 346-368
  • Der Traum von der Weltmacht. Imperialistische Ziele in der deutschen Nationalbewegung von der Rheinkrise bis zum Ende der Paulskirche’, Jahrbuch der Hambach Gesellschaft 6 (1996/97), 99-183

Digital/Online Publications (Open Access)

  • Ludwig of Bavaria and Helmstadt: The Heroic Memory of an Unmilitary Prince [2016] [Details]
  • “Frau Deines Mannes, Tochter Deiner Mutter”: Victoria und das Scheitern einer Mission [2016] [Details]
  • Prince Wilhelm of Württemberg: Swabian Loyalty and the Uses of Gefühlspolitik [2016] [Details]
  • Myths and Counter-Myths [2012] [Details]
  • “Beware of this Man in Germany, he is dangerous and deceitful!” Prince Ludwig of Bavaria as a Reichsfeind [2013] [Details]
  • Losing “Our Louise” and Winning the Saxons’ Hearts: The Trials and Tribulations of Crown Prince Friedrich August of Saxony [2014] [Details]
  • (podcast/in German) “Frau Deines Mannes, Tochter Deiner Mutter“: Mission und Scheitern der Kaiserin Victoria [2014] [Details]
  • “Distant from the Court and all of its Influences”: The German Crown Prince at the Prinzenschule in Plön [2015] [Details]
  • Planning a Crypt to teach the Nation: Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm and his Dynastic Politics of Memory [2015] [Details]


Teaching Duties

Participates in the teaching of First and Second Level Modern History and offers the following Honours courses:

Also co-teaches the following Postgraduate courses:


Research Students

Current Research Students:

  • Percy Leung, Symphonic Beneficence: The Social and Political Contributions of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Symphony Orchestra during the First World War
  • Ines Neffgen,Social Democracy and Monarchy in the German Empire. A comparative study at the sub-national level, 1871-1914 (Co-tutelle with the University of Bonn/Prof. D. Geppert)
  • Mariko Okawa,Queenship and the impact of Gender on Monarchy and Government in Victorian Britain
  • Jonathan Triffitt, The German Princes and the People after the Fall of Monarchy, 1918-1934 (co-supervised with Prof. Riccardo Bavaj)

Completed Research Students:

  • Charles Jones, The Albertine Web: Prince Albert and Foreign Affairs, 1840-1861
  • Maria-Christina Marchi, Princes and their People: The Evolving Role of the Italian Heirs to the Throne in the Public Eye, 1860‐1914
  • Richard Meyer Forsting, Monarchy and Army in 19th century Spain: The Role of Heirs to the Throne
  • Miriam Schneider, The “Sailor Prince” in the Age of Empire: Creating a Monarchical Brand in Nineteenth-Century Europe


Main Publications

Our Fritz

Die Revolution von 1848/9