Prof Carole Hillenbrand

Professor Carole Hillenbrand




Research Profile on Research@StAndrews




Teaching and Research Interests

Prof. Hillenbrand was educated at the Universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Edinburgh, the latter where she most recently held the appointment of Professor of Islamic History. Amongst her many academic distinctions, Prof. Hillenbrand is a Fellow of the British Academy, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in 2009 was awarded an OBE for services to Higher Education.

With research interests including the Seljuqs of Iran and Turkey, the Crusades, and medieval Muslim political thought, Prof. Hillenbrand’s appointment enhances the existing expertise of the School of History in medieval and Middle Eastern history.

In 2005 Prof. Hillenbrand was the first non-Muslim to be awarded the highest accolade in Islamic studies in the Arab world, the King Faisal Prize for Islamic Studies. Since 1983 she has been Islamic Advisory Editor at Edinburgh University Press and from 1999 has been the editor of the series entitled Studies in Persian and Turkish History, published by Routledge.

Awarded the British Academy/Nayef Al-Rodhan Prize for Transcultural Understanding, 2016 for my book, Islam: A New Historical Introduction (Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2015).

Main Publications


  • The waning of the Umayyad Caliphate, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1989, 273pp.
  • A Muslim Principality in Crusader Times: the Early Artuqid State, The Netherlands Historical and Archaeological Institute for the Near East in Istanbul, Leiden, 1990, 266pp.
  • The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1999, 647pp. This book has been translated into Russian and Indonesian.
  • Turkish myth and Muslim symbol: the Battle of Manzikert, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2007, 320 pp.
    This book is being translated into Russian and Turkish. Review of this book in the Times Literary Supplement, 5 December 2008.

Edited Books

  • Qajar Iran: Political, Social and Cultural Change, 1800-1925, Edinburgh University Press, 1984, 414pp. Co-edited with C. Edmund Bosworth.
  • The Sultan’s Turret: Studies in Persian and Turkish Culture in Honour of Professor Edmund Bosworth, Brill, Leiden, 1999, 544pp.

Articles and Chapters in Books

  • The Career of Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi”, Der Islam 58/2 (1981), 250-291.
  • “Some Medieval Islamic approaches to Source Material”, Oriens 27-8 (1981), 197-225.
  • “The Establishment of Artuqid Power in Diyar Bakr in the Twelfth Century”, Studia Islamica LIV (1981), 129-153.
  • “Medieval Islamic Geography: the Case of Merv”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Science in Islamic Polity (sic) II, Islamabad, 1983, 338-341.
  • “The History of the Jazira: a Short Introduction”, in The Art of Syria and the Jazira, 1100-1250, ed. J. Raby, Oxford University Press, 1985, 9-19.
  • “The Islamic World and the Crusades”, Scottish Journal of Religious Studies VIII (1987), 150-157.
  • “Malazgird”, Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd edition), Leiden, 1987, cols. 243a-244b.
  • “Marwanids”, ibid., cols. 626a-627b.
  • “Mayyafarikin”, ibid., cols. 930a-932b.
    Note: These three articles (items 7-9), which total some 8,000 words, constitute the outline of a history of eastern Turkey in the 10th and 11th centuries.

  • “Islamic Orthodoxy or Realpolitik?: al-Ghazali’s Views on Government”, Iran XXVI (1988), 81-94 (13,000 words).
  • “A Muslim Success in the Second Crusade”, in Mélanges Dominique Sourdel, ed. L. Kalus, Geuthner, Paris, 1989, 165-171.
  • “Mu’in al-Din Sulayman Parwana”, Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd edition), Leiden, 1992, cols. 479a-480b.

  • “Al-Mustandjid”, ibid., cols. 726a-727a.
  • “Al-Mustansir”, ibid., cols. 727a-729a.
  • “Al-Mustarshid”, ibid., cols. 733a-735b.
  • “Al-Mustazhir”, ibid., cols. 755a-756a.
    Note: These four articles (items 13-16), which total well over 8,000 words, together represent an attempt to establish for the first time the history of the revived caliphate in the 12th century.

  • “Mu’in al-Din Parwana: the Servant of Two Masters?”, Miscellanea Arabica et Islamica, ed. F. de Jong, Peeters, Louvin, 1993, 267-275.
  • “Aspects of Jihad Propaganda: the Evidence of 12th Century Inscriptions”, Proceedings of the Conference on the History of the Crusades, University of Bir Zeit, Bir Zeit, 1993, 53-63.
  • “Al-Ghazali on Beauty”, Festschrift Professor Annemarie Schimmel, ed. J.C. Bürgel, Peter Lang Verlag, Bern, 1994, 249-265.
  • “Ibn al-‘Adim’s Biography of the Seljuq Sultan, Alp Arslan”, Actas XVI Congreso Union Européene des Arabisants et Islamisants, Salamanca, 1995, 237-242.
  • “1092: a Murderous Year”, Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Union Européene des Arabisants et Islamisants, Budapest, 1995, 281-296.
  • “The Power Struggle between the Saljuqs and the Isma’ilis of Alamut, 497-518/1094-1124: the Saljuq Perspective”, in Studies in Isma’ili History, ed. F. Daftary, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 205-220.
  • The Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, tr. J.M. Redhouse, Mazda Press, Costa Mesa, 1995, new introduction, v-xvi.
  • “The First Crusade: the Muslim perspective” in The origins and impact of the First Crusade, ed. J. Phillips, Manchester University Press, 1997, 130-141.
  • “Al-Ghazzali” Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. J.S. Meisami and P. Starkey, Routledge, London and New York, 1998, vol. 1, cols. 252a-253a.
  • “Saljuqs” Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, vol. 2 cols. 682a-683b.
  • “Seljuq women” in The Balance of Truth, ed. C. Balim-Harding and C. Imber, Istanbul, 2000, 145-6.
  • “Some Reflections on Seljuq Historiography” in Eastern Approaches to Byzantium, ed. A.Eastmond, Aldershot, 2000, 73-88.
  • “’Abominable acts’: the Career of Zengi” in The Second Crusade, ed. J.Phillips and M. Hoch, Manchester, 2001, 111-32.
  • “Al-Ghazali” in Encyclopedia of Life Writing: Autobiographical and Biographical Forms, ed. M. Jolly, Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001, 374-5.
  • “Women in the Seljuq Period” in Women in Iran from the Rise of Islam to 1800, ed. G.Nashat and L. Beck, Illinois, 2003, 103-20.
  • “Some Reflections on the Imprisonment of Reynald of Chatillon” in Texts, Documents and Artefacts: Islamic Studies in Honour of D.S. Richards, ed. C.F. Robinson, Leiden, 2003, 79-102.
  • “Ayyubids” in Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, New York, 2003, 657-60.
  • “Some Thoughts on the Use of the Qur’an in Monumental Inscriptions in Syria and Palestine in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries” in Islamic Reflections, Arabic Musings: Studies in Honour of Professor Alan Jones, ed. R. Hoyland and P.F. Kennedy, Gibb Memorial Trust, Warminster, 2004, 277 –87.
  • “The legacy of the Crusades” in Crusades: The Illustrated History, ed. T. Madden, London, 2004, 202-11.
  • “A little-known Mirror for Princes of al-Ghazali” in Words, Texts and Concepts Cruising the Mediterranean Sea, ed. R. Arnzen and J. Thielmann, Leuven, 2004, 593-601
  • “Ankunft im Vorderen Orient: Die Politische und Religiöse Situation” in Die Kreuzfahrer, ed. A. Wieczorek, M. Fansa and H. Meller, Mannheim, 2005, 3-15.
  • “Ravandi, the Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian cities” in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), 25-6 (2005) , 157-69.
  • “Muhammad and the Rise of Islam” The New Cambridge Medieval History, I, ed. P. Fouracre, Cambridge, 2005, 317-46 (13,000 words).
  • “The Evolution of the Saladin Legend in the West” in Mélanges Louis Pouzet, Beirut, 2006, 1-13.
  • “The Arabic sources” in The Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire, 1024-1204, ed. M. Whitby, The British Academy, London, 2007, 283-340.
  • “Artuqids” in Encyclopedia of the Crusades, I, 110-12.
  • “Ayyubids” in Encyclopedia of the Crusades, I, 123-8.
  • “Some Medieval Muslim Views of Constantinople” in World Christianity in Muslim Encounter, II, ed. S.R. Goodwin, Continuum, London and New York, 2009, 71-83.
  • “Ayyubid Jerusalem – an Overview” in Ayyubid Jerusalem. ed. R. Hillenbrand and S. Auld, Al-Tajir Trust, London, 2009, 1-21 (20, 000 words).
  • “Water in Classical Islamic Culture” in Gardens Beneath which Rivers Flow, ed. S. Blair and J. Bloom, Yale University Press, Newhaven, 2009, 1-17.
  • "Jihad Poetry at the Time of the Crusades” in Proceedings of the Crusades conference held at the University of St Louis, 2007, ed. T. Madden, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2010, 9-22.
  • “The Shī‘īs of Aleppo in the Zengid Period: Some Unexploited Textual and Epigraphic Evidence” in Differenz und Dynamik im Islam. Festschrift für Heinz Halm zum 70. Geburtstag, eds. Hinrich Biesterfeldt and Verena Klemm, Ergon Verlag, Würzburg, 2011, 163-80.
  • “Aspects of the Court of the Great Seljuqs” in The Seljuqs: Politics, Society and Culture, eds. Christian Lange and Songul Mecit, EUP, Edinburgh, 2011, 2-38.
  • “What’s in a name? Tughtegin – the ‘Minister of the Antichrist’?” in Fortresses of the Intellect. Ismaili and Other Islamic Studies in Honour of Farhad Daftary, ed. Omar Ali-de-Onzaga, I.B. Tauris, London and New York, 2011, 459-72.
  • “Sayf al-Dawla, al-Mutanabbī and Byzantium: The Evidence of a Textile” in Arabia, Greece and Byzantium. Cultural Contacts in Ancient and Medieval Times, eds. Abdulaziz Al-Helabi, Moshalleh Al-Moraekhi, Dimitrios Letsios and Abdullah Abduljabbar, Riyadh 2012 / AH 1433, 225-34.

Teaching Duties

Professor Hillenbrand lectures on MH2002 and offers the following Honours courses:



Main Publications