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Patrick Lyall served as the 'British' merchant consul in Elsinore between 1681-8 and many letters from him survive. Long before he received his official position in Denmark, he had written to the Swedish College of Commerce (09/10/1669) regarding eight points of outrage at the Swedish Tolls. Little more can be found about him until, in 1680, he was authorised to marry Wilhelm Freyr's widow Margrethe Mathiesdatter 14/2/1680. The following year he received his appointment as British Consul at Elsinore and received Danish authorization on 24/11/1683. Lyall's appointment was reconfirmed by James VII/II on 4/3/1686. Perhaps because of his position, Lyall was exempted from paying taxes by special privilege in 1682. He also made himself unpopular with the Sound Toll administration, after he discovered, and apparently reported irregularities. Isak Holmes servant Seneca Torsen kept a journal of all the English and Scottish skippers passing through the sound between 1681-1683. In the corner of many of the entries he added a small note observing that caution for the ship/cargo had been provided by Mr Lyall. These entries included; no.207. 11 September 1681, Gavin Atkins of Greenock, 'The Mary', from Glasgow to Riga with 22 lasts of herring cargo plus 1 last herring, 800 lambskins, 3 dozen stockings for master and crew; no.17, 5 April 1682, James Rae of Glasgow, 'The Janet', bound for Stockholm with 40 lasts of herring. She returned on 15 July with 227.13.10 of iron and 3 lasts of tar; no.117, 21 May 1682, William Davie of Glasgow, 'The Providence' bound for Stockholm with 20 lasts of herring, 50 dozen stockings, 1300 ells linen, 1400 fallow linen, 200 dozen gloves, 200 fox skins. She returned 23 August with 190.5 ship-pounds of iron, 3 lasts of tar and 17 lasts of copper; no.164, 28 May 1682, John Hastings of Leith, 'The Isobell', travelling between Rochelle and Riga waith a cargo of salt and returning 25 August; no.179, 30 May 1682, John Redpath of Leith, 'The John', bound for Stockholm with 12 lasts of salt (Scots), 6 lasts herring, 250 lb sugar, 60 reams of paper with an additional 2 lasts herring and 100 barrels of oisters for the master and crew. She returned bound for Leith with 9.5 lasts of rye on 23 July; no.311, 15 September 1682, George Darling of Queensferry, 'The St Andrew', bound for Stockholm from Glasgow with 60 lasts herring; no.312, 15 September 1682, Alexander Fender of Leith, 'The Lyon', bound for Danzig with 20 lasts of salt, 2300 lamb skins, 100 dozen woolen stockings and 200 barrels of oisters (with another 200 for the master and crew). She returned on 31 October with 70 shp-pounds of iron, 27 of potash and some hemp. It is not clear why Lyall chose to vouch for these particular vessels, but they probably indicate his direct business interests or that these gained some tax advantage due to Lyall's position. His name appears on an anchorage bill of Thomas Gourlay [SSNE 7148], a skipper in the employ of the joint stock company of Andrew Russell [SSNE 143], Patrick Thomson [SSNE 6475] and James Thomson [SSNE 6332]. The bill was dated 19 May 1685 and it was noted that Lyall was paid some 378:24:00 (Pounds Scots?) with other amounts being paid to his employees. Further, a letter of Patrick Thomson to Andrew Russell from 17 October 1685 shows that Lyall had sent a letter to Thomson in regard of some money (600 daler) he had put aboard Delien from the money Thomson had sent him for anchorage. Lyall added that Charles Thomson was also in the Sound. By 28 October Thomson wrote Russell that he had sent a bill payable in Amsterdam to Lyall in order that he could place it on a more suitable ship should the occassion arise.On 16 March 1688, three Scottish merchants of Leith (John Riddell, John Wilkie and William Lambe) instructed their skipper, William Craig, to sail for Gothenburg to sell their goods there, and, if this was not possible, they should ask Lyall's advice where he could have corn bought cheaply. Lyall certainly maintained his personal trading interests. He imported flax from Danzig on 3/9/1688, and took care of goods sent from London with a skipper of Stockholm. He also orchestrated the transfer of goods to Konigsberg with a skipper of Drammen on 12/3/1707. The Scottish Privy Council wanted to instruct the Scottish fleet to wait for a convoy to take them home from Gothenburg in 1706, and Lyall was instructed to make sure the Scots knew about this. Among other articles Lyall's folder in the Danish Rigsarkiv are two volumes entitled 'Specification paa Damske og Norske skibe 1 januarii til 1 decembris 1694' and 'Specification paa Svenske skibe 1 januarii til 1 decembris 1694'. Among the entries noted by Lyall were a number of ships trading with Scotland, or which had skippers of Scottish origin. In the Danish-Norwegian folder was information on a Bergen ship skippered by Johan Allan [SSNE 831] travelling between Leith and Danzig with salt and other goods. He also noted Peder Jacobsen of Christiansand also going to Danzig with salt from Leith while Nils Pedersen from Copenhagen went only as far as Copenhagen with his Leith salt. The Swedish ships he noted inluded Robert Wilson [SSNE 6882] sailing between St Martin and Abo. Oluf Michelsen on the Kongsbach ship 'Pelican' sailed between Leith and Copenhagen. Leyel also recorded four Stockholm ships of note. Edward Hill [SSNE 6883], on 'The Hope' sailed between Leith and Danzig while Joshua Smitton on the 'Johannes' took the Leith to Stockholm journey. Jacob Sanderson [SSNE 6885] sailed between Stockholm and Dundee on 'Jacob' while Mattias Sahlstom on the Maria left Glasgow for Stockholm.In addition to his merchant consular duties, Lyall also took part in civic life. He was present in the court on 15/9/1691 during a case of debt. He is known to have paid taxes equating to a '4th fjerding' during 1699-1700 for himself, his wife and a maid. He also paid reduced taxes in both 1701-1707. The Lyall's supplemented their income by brewing a little beer and letting out rooms to visiting skippers.



Sources: National Archives of Scotland, Russell Papers, RH15/106/574. Anchorage Bill of Thomas Gourlay, 19 May 1685 and Patrick Thomson to Andrew Russell, 17 & 28 October 1685; Danish Rigsarkiv, TKUA, England, AII. Patrick Leyel 1683-1698; Danish Rigsarkiv, Da. Kanc. 1681-83, Skab 15 N.252, c.63c, "Den af Isak Holmes fulmægtig, Seneca Torsen holdte journal fra alle engelske og skotske skippere saavel fra vestersoen som fra Østersoen som har passeret Øresund"; Swedish Riksarkiv, Kommerskollegii Underdåniga Skrivelser 1651-1840 - Patrick Leijel, 09/10/1669; British Library, Additional Manuscripts of the Sloane Collection 41828/41830, fol.19r., 66r.-v., 98r; T. Riis, Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot (Odense, 1988), II, p.232; T. C. Smout, 'Scottish Commercial Factors in the Baltic at the end of the Seventeenth Century' in Scottish Historical Review, XXXIX, 1960, pp.122-128; T. C. Smout, Scottish Trade on the Eve of Union (Edinburgh & London, 1963), pp.83, 98, 294; Steve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), pp.140, 156-161, 237-238, 245, 351.


See also: Riksarkivets ämnessamlingar. Personhistoria https://sok.riksarkivet.se/bildvisning/A0069813_00305#?c=&m=&s=&cv=304&xywh=659%2C961%2C6240%2C3599

Service record

Arrived 1669-10-09
Departed 1707-12-31