University of St Andrews

Environmental Economics Discussion Papers

Discussion papers listed below may be downloaded by selecting the numerical link on the left and are also available via RePEc.


  • 2019-02 (PDF, 3,119 KB)  Ireland’s Peculiar Microfinance Revolution, c. 1836-1845  Eoin McLaughlin and Rowena Pecchenino 
  • 2019-01 (PDF, 753 KB)   The Circular Economy: Swings and Roundabouts?   Neal Millar, Eoin McLaughlin, Tobias Börger


  • 2018-03 (PDF, 1,495 KB)  A Bottom-up Approach to Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis   Johannes Friedrich Carolus, Nick Hanley, Søren Bøye Olsen, Søren Marcus Pedersen
  • 2018-02 (PDF, 1,179 KB)  Social Norms and Pro-Environment Behaviours: Heterogeneous Response to Signals  Miko?aj Czajkowski , Katarzyna Zagórska and Nick Hanley
  • 2018-01 (PDF, 1,203 KB)  Genuine Savings as a Test of New Zealand Weak Sustainability  Mubashir Qasim, Les Oxley and Eoin McLaughlin


  • 2017-13 (PDF, 1,515 KB)  Incentivising Participation and Spatial Coordination in Payment for Ecosystem Service Schemes: Forest Disease Control Programs in Finland  Oleg Sheremet, Enni Ruokamo, Artti Juutinen, Rauli Svento, and Nick Hanley
  • 2017-12 (PDF, 1,083 KB)  Deaths from natural disasters: How important are income, income inequality and geography?  Hebe Nicholson, Nick Hanley, Laure Kuhfuss and Allan Findlay
  • 2017-11 (PDF, 873 KB)  Nudging Participation and Spatial Agglomeration in Payment for Environmental Service Schemes  Laure Kuhfuss, Raphaële Préget, Sophie Thoyer, Frans P. de Vrie and Nick Hanley
  • 2017-10 (PDF, 2,296 KB)  Scarring and Selection in the Great Irish Famine  Matthias Blum, Christopher L. Colvin and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2017-09 (PDF, 1,145 KB)  Can Ocean Desalination and Water Recycling Capacities Substitute for Groundwater Depletion in California?  Pierre Badiuzzamana, Eoin McLaughlin and Darren McCauley
  • 2017-08 (PDF, 1,445 KB)  Personality and Economic Choices  C. Boyce, M. Czajkowski and N. Hanley
  • 2017-07 (PDF, 1,341 KB)  Using Genuine Savings for Climate Policy Evaluation with an Integrated Assessment Model  L. Dupuy, K. Tokimatsu, and N. Hanley
  • 2017-06 (PDF, 1,072 KB)  Stated Preferences for Conservation Policies under Uncertainty: Insights on Individuals’ Risk Attitudes in the Environmental Domain   Michela Faccioli, Laure Kuhfuss and Miko?aj Czajkowski
  • 2017-05 (PDF, 837 KB)  The Allure of the Illegal: Choice Modelling of Rhino Horn Demand in Vietnam  N. Hanley, O. Sheremet, M. Bozzola, and D. C. MacMillan
  • 2017-04 (PDF, 397 KB)  Designing Markets for Biodiversity Offsets: Lessons from Tradable Pollution Permits  K. Simpson, F. P. de Vries, P. Armsworth and N. Hanley
  • 2017-03 (PDF, 703 KB)  The relationship between perceived difficulty and randomness in discrete choice experiments: Investigating reasons for and consequences of difficulty Tobias Börger, Oliver Frör and Sören Weiß
  • 2017-02 (PDF, 733 KB)  The External Validity of Consequential Stated Preference Studies: a comment  David A. Comerford and Nick Hanley
  • 2017-01 (PDF, 1,229 KB)  Stated Preference Valuation Methods: An Evolving Tool for Understanding Choices and Informing Policy N. Hanley and M. Czajkowski


  • 2016-16 (PDF, 509 KB)  Linking perceived choice complexity with scale heterogeneity in discrete choice experiments: home heating in Finland  E. Ruokamo, M. Czajkowski, N. Hanley, A. Juutinen, and R. Svento
  • 2016-15 (PDF, 643 KB)  A Sustainable Century? Genuine Savings in developing and developed countries, 1900-2000  Mathias Blum, Cristián Ducoing, and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2016-14 (PDF, 1,229 KB)  Understanding the distribution of economic benefits from improving coastal and marine ecosystems  Kristine Pakalniete, Juris Aigars, Miko?aj Czajkowski, Solvita Strake, Ewa Zawojska and Nick Hanley
  • 2016-13 (PDF, 799 KB)  Giving respondents “time to think” reduces response randomness in repeated discrete choice tasks  Tobias Börger and Joseph Cook
  • 2016-12 (PDF, 439 KB)  Communicating Research on the Economic Valuation of Coastal and Marine Ecosystem Services  Cati Torres and Nick Hanley
  • 2016-11 (PDF, 786 KB)  The Effects of Invasive Pests and Diseases on Strategies for Forest Diversification  Morag F. Macpherson, Adam Kleczkowski, John R. Healey, Chris Quine and Nick Hanley
  • 2016-10  Consumer Demand for Rhino Horn in Vietnam: Insights from a Choice Experiment  Nick Hanley, Oleg Sheremet, Martina Bozzola, Alexander Kasterine and Douglas C. MacMillan 
  • 2016-09 (PDF, 1,854 KB)  What is the Causal Impact of Knowledge on Preferences in Stated Preference Studies? Nick Hanley and Miko?aj Czajkowski
  • 2016-08 (PDF, 810 KB)  Australia: a Land of Missed Opportunities?  David Greasley, Nick Hanley, Eoin McLaughlin and Les Oxley 
  • 2016-07 (PDF, 918 KB)  The Rise and Fall of Exceptional Australian Income Since 1800  David Greasley and Jackob B. Madsen
  • 2016-06 (PDF, 259 KB)  Managed Realignment for Flood Risk Reductions: What are the Drivers of Public Willingness to Pay?  Katherine Simpson and Nick Hanley
  • 2016-05 (PDF, 740 KB)  Payment for Multiple Forest Benefits Alters the Effect of Tree Disease on Optimal Forest Rotation Length  Morag F. Macpherson, Adam Kleczkowski, John R. Healey, and Nick Hanley 
  • 2016-04 (PDF, 348 KB)  Pesticides and Bees: Ecological-Economic Modelling of Bee Populations on Farmland  Ciaran Ellis, Nick Hanley, Adam Kleczkowski and David Goulson
  • 2016-03 (PDF, 895 KB)  What a Difference a Stochastic Process Makes: Epidemiological-Based Real Options Models of Optimal Treatment of Disease  C.E. Dangerfield, A.E. Whalley, Nick Hanley, and C.A. Gilligan
  • 2016-02 (PDF, 764 KB)  Economics of invasive pests and diseases: a guide for policy makers and managers  Nick Hanley and Morag MacPherson 
  • ‌  Economic valuation of coastal and marine ecosystem services in the 21st century: an overview from a management perspective  Cati Torres and Nick Hanley


  • 2015-22 (PDF, 2,424 KB)  Quantifying human capital accumulation in rural Ireland in the nineteenth century  Matthias Blum, Christopher L. Colvin, Laura McAtackney and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2015-21 (PDF, 777 KB)  Incentive-Based Policy Design for Pollution Control and Biodiversity Conservation: A Review  Frans P. de Vries and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-20 (PDF, 898 KB)   Marine Trade-Offs: Comparing the Benefits of Off-Shore Wind Farms and Marine Protected Areas  Aljona Karlõševa, Sulev Nõmmann, Tea Nõmmann, Evelin Urbel-Piirsalu,  Wiktor Budzi?ski Miko?aj Czajkowski and Nick Hanley 
  • 2015-19 (PDF, 598 KB)   When to harvest? The effect of disease on optimal forest rotation Morag F. Macpherson, Adam Kleczkowski, John Healey and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-18 (PDF, 551 KB)   Should historic sites protection be targeted at the most famous? Evidence from a contingent valuation in Scotland  Laure Kuhfuss, Nick Hanley and Russell Whyte 
  • 2015-17 (PDF, 1,103 KB)  Do we care about sustainability? An analysis of time sensitivity of social preferences under environmental time-persistent effects Michela Faccioli, Nick Hanley, Catalina M Torres Figuerola and Antoni Riera Font
  • 2015-16 (PDF, 673 KB)  Competition between organisational forms in Danish and Irish dairying around the turn of the twentieth century  Eoin McLaughlin and Paul Sharp
  • 2015-15 (PDF, 735 KB)  Nudges, social norms and permanence in?agri-environmental schemes  Laure Kuhfuss, Raphaële Préget, Sophie Thoyer, Nick Hanley, Philippe Le Coent and Mathieu Désolé
  • 2015-14 (PDF, 4,450 KB) Marine trade-offs: comparing the benefits of off-shore wind farms and marine protected areas  Aljona Karlõševa, Sulev Nõmmann, Tea Nõmmann, Evelin Urbel-Piirsalu, Wiktor Budzi?ski, Miko?aj Czajkowski and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-13 (PDF, 570 KB)  Economic Impact of the Irish revolution  Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2015-12 (PDF, 1,097 KB)  International Trade and Structural Change: a Dynamic Model of Weak Sustainability  Louis Dupuy
  • 2015-11 (PDF, 1,071 KB)  Sovereign Debt Guarantees and Default: Lessons from the UK and Ireland, 1920-1938  Nathan Foley-Fisher and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2015-10 (PDF, 702 KB)  Spatial Coordination in Agglomeration Bonus Schemes with Transaction Costs and Communication: An Experiment Study  Simanti Banerjee, Timothy N. Cason, Frans P. de Vries and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-09 (PDF, 1,583 KB)  What is the Causal Effect of Knowledge on Preferences? Jacob LaRiviere, Miko?aj Czajkowski, Nick Hanley and Katherine Simpson
  • 2015-08 (PDF, 1,006 KB)  The Effects of Emotions on Preferences and Choices for Public Goods  Christopher Boyce, Miko?aj Czajkowski, Nick Hanley, Charles Noussair, Michael Townsend and Steve Tucker
  • 2015-07 (PDF, 1,432 KB)  Spatial heterogeneity of willingness to pay for forest management  Mikolaj Czajkowski, Wiktor Budzinski, Danny Campbell, Marek Giergiczny and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-06 (PDF, 835 KB)  Nudging farmers to sign agri-environmental contracts: the effects of a collective bonus  Kuhfuss L., Préget R., Thoyer S. and Hanley N.   
  • 2015-05 (PDF, 1,109 KB)  Do agri-environmental schemes help reduce herbicide use? Evidence from a natural experiment in France  Laure Kuhfuss and Julie Subervie
  • 2015-04 (PDF, 307 KB)  Is the income elasticity of the willingness to pay for pollution control constant?  Edward B. Barbier, Mikolaj Czajkowski and Nick Hanley
  • 2015-03 (PDF, 1,580 KB)  Capitalising on the Irish Land Question: Land Reform and State Banking in Ireland, 1891-1938 Nathan Foley-Fisher and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2015-02 (PDF, 560 KB)  Disentangling the Influence of Knowledge on Processing Strategies in Choice Modelling Erlend Dancke Sandorf, Danny Campbell and Nick Hanley
  • ‌  Contracts and Cooperation: The Relative Failure of the Irish Dairy Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century Reconsidered Ingrid Henriksen, Eoin McLaughlin, and Paul Sharp


  • 2014-11 (PDF, 778 KB)  Economic valuation of marine and coastal ecosystems:  Is it currently fit for purpose?  Nick Hanley, Stephen Hynes, Niels Jobstvogt and David M. Paterson
  • 2014-10 (PDF, 1,042 KB)  Accounting for sustainable development over the long-run: lessons from Germany  Matthias Blum,  Eoin McLaughlin and Nick Hanley
  • 2014-09 (PDF, 657 KB)  Genuine Savings and Sustainability  Nick Hanley,  Louis Dupuy and Eoin McLaughlin
  • 2014-08 (PDF, 786 KB)  Should We Pay for Ecosystem Service Outputs, Actions or Both?  Ben White and Nick Hanley
  • ‌  Incorrectly accounting for preference heterogeneity in choice experiments: what are the implications for welfare measurement?  Cati Torres, Sergio Colombo and Nick Hanley
  • 2014-06 (PDF, 1,411 KB)  Within-and between-sample tests of preference stability and willingness to pay for forest management  Mikolaj Czajkowski, Anna Barczak, Wiktor Budzinski, Marek Giergiczny and Nick Hanley
  • 2014-05 (PDF, 844 KB)  The Effects of Experience on Preferences: Theory and Empirics for Environmental Public Goods  Mikolaj Czajkowski, Nick Hanley and Jacob LaRiviere
  • 2014-04 (PDF, 995 KB)  Controlling for the effects of information in a public goods discrete choice model  Czajkowski, Nick Hanley and Jacob LaRiviere
  • 2014-03 (PDF, 1,009 KB)  Social norms, morals and self-interest as determinants of pro-environment behaviour  Mikolaj Czajkow, Nick Hanley, and Karine Nyborg
  • 2014-02 (PDF, 906 KB)  The effects of energy costs on firm re-location decisions  Lucia Lavric, Matthew Panhans and Nick Hanley
  • 2014-01 (PDF, 1,224 KB)  The Emperor has New Clothes: Empirical Tests of Mainstream Theories of Economic Growth  David Greasley, Nick Hanley, Eoin McLaughlin, and Les Oxley