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Mitigating environmental impacts of naval sonar

Research by St Andrews scientists studying the effects of naval sonar on marine mammals has had the following international impacts: 

  • on the environment by developing new ways to manage environmental risks of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals
  • on public policy and defence as research evidence changed US and European policy and criteria on impacts of sonar on marine mammals, allowing US and European navies to continue sonar training with reduced risk to whales
  • on commerce as a new product with a current sales value of £3.5 million has been commercialised to help navies to predict and manage risk to marine mammals.