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Ian Taylor

Professor

Room: 305

Office Hours Mon - 11-12, 2-4

Tel: 2926

Email: ictst-andrews.ac.uk

Ian Taylor


About

Ian Taylor is Professor in International Relations and African Politics at St Andrews and also Chair Professor in the School of International Studies, Renmin University of China - the highest rank a non-Chinese academic can hold at a Chinese university.

 

He is also Professor Extraordinary in Political Science at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, an Honorary Professor at the Institute of African Studies, China, and a Visiting Scholar at Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.

 

He is a Commissioner of the 14-persons Commonwealth Scholarship Commission. 

 

He has held visiting professorships at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and was the Lee Hysan Visiting Professor, Centre for China Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong.

 

Focusing largely on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) he has authored 7 academic books, edited another 8 and has published over 60 peer-reviewed scholarly articles, over 60 chapters in books and numerous working papers, reports, op-eds, review articles, encyclopedia entries, book reviews etc. He has been invited to present his research in 40 countries on 6 continents. He was recently described as "one of the most authoratative academics on SSA IR" (Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 25, no 1, 2012, p. 171).

 

He holds a DPhil from the University of Stellenbosch and an MPhil from the University of Hong Kong. He also holds a teaching certificate from the International Language Institute, Cairo, Egypt, where he taught Ethiopian, Somali and Sudanese refugees.

 

Prior to joining St Andrews in 2004 he taught African Politics and various IR and Development subjects for four years at the University of Botswana.

 

Before entering academia, he worked for the UNHCR, based in Hong Kong, on the Vietnamese "Boat People" issue.

 

Other than at St Andrews and Botswana, Taylor has also taught courses at Ben-Gurion University (Israel); Dalhousie University (Canada); the University of Edinburgh; the University of Hong Kong; Mbarara University of Science and Technology (Uganda); Renmin University of China; the University of Stellenbosch, and Zhejiang Normal University (China).

 

He has conducted research in and/or visited 38 African countries, plus Réunion (a little outpost of la gloire française). Taylor's academic work has been translated into Afrikaans, Arabic, Chinese, French, German and Spanish.

 

 


Teaching

IR3024: The Politics of Africa

IR4516: Africa’s International Relations

IR5723: Conflict and Security in Africa

IR5114: African Political Thought

IR5727: Civil War, Genocide and Transformation in Rwanda

 

He also contributes to: Regional Security; Theoretical Approaches to IR; and Introduction to International Relations.


Research

He is interested in Africa's political economy and its international relations, Afro-Asian ties, emerging South-South relations and the notion of "rising powers" (e.g. the BRICS) and the implications for global development (and for Africa specifically).

 

He has also studied China's relations with Africa, producing a large body of work on this topic, conducted since 1994 and based on extensive fieldwork across Africa and in China.

 

He also has an abiding interest in critical theory, particularly neo-Gramscian theory and its contribution to International Relations/International Political Economy, and in the political thought of the great African intellectuals such as Cabral, Biko, Nkrumah, Nyerere, Fanon etc.

 

His most recent books are on Africa's international relations (2010) and one on the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, which was published in 2011. He has just completed a book analysing the implications of the BRICS' involvement in SSA in the context of the whole "Africa Rising" discourse, entitled The BRICS in Africa: Diversifying Dependency?, to be published shortly by James Currey. 

 

He has also published a substantial body of work on post-apartheid South Africa's political economy and its foreign policies.  His studies in this field were recently described as "represent[ing] probably the most articulate and theoretically self-conscious attempt to come to grips with the contradictions in South Africa's foreign policy" (European Journal of Development Research, vol. 24, no. 2, 2012, p. 286.

 

Furthermore, he has been a leading exponent of the application and adapation of the New Regionalism Theory to the critical study of trans-border processes in Africa, with numerous publications in this field.

  

He has conducted fieldwork/research in Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, China, D.R. Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, Liberia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somaliland, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, United States of America, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Books

Authored

The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) London: Routledge, 2011.

 

The International Relations of Sub-Saharan Africa New York, NY: Continuum, 2010.

 

China’s New Role in Africa Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.

 

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development London: Routledge, 2007.

 

China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise London: Routledge, 2006.

 

NEPAD: Towards Africa’s Development or Another False Start? Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

 

Stuck in Middle GEAR: South Africa’s Post-Apartheid Foreign Relations Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

 

Edited

(with Dominik Kopinski and Andrzej Polus) (eds.) China's Rise in Africa: Perspectives on a Developing Connection London: Routledge, 2012.

 

(with Fredrik Söderbaum) Afro-Regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-Regionalism in Africa Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2008.

 

(with Luca Castellani and Pang Zhongying) (eds.) China Outside China: China in Africa Turin: Centro di Alti Studi Sulla  Cina Contemporanea, 2007.

 

(with Donna Lee and Paul Williams) (eds.) The New Multilateralism in South Africa’s Diplomacy Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006.

 

(with Pamela Mbabazi) (eds.) The Potentiality of “Developmental States” in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared Dakar: Codesria, 2005.

 

(with Paul Williams) (eds.) Africa in International Politics: External Involvement on the Continent London: Routledge 2004.

 

(with Fredrik Söderbaum) (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of The Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

 

(with Philip Nel and Janis van der Westhuizen) (eds.) South Africa’s Multilateral Diplomacy and Global Change: The Limits of Reform Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

 

Edited annual yearbooks

Botswana Notes and Records, volume 36, 2004. 

Botswana Notes and Records, volume 35, 2003.

Botswana Notes and Records, volume 34, 2002.

 


Articles

67. 'Emerging Powers, State Capitalism and the Oil Sector in Africa', Review of African Political Economy, vol. 41, issue 139, 2014.

 

66. ‘South Africa and the Emerging Powers’, Estudos Internacionais, vol. 1, no. 2, 2013, pp. 139-156.

  

65. (with Philip Nel) 'Bugger thy Neighbour? IBSA and South–South Solidarity', Third World Quarterly, vol. 34, issue 6, 2013, pp. 1091-1110.

 

64. (with Naomi Aass Girardeau) ‘Unconstitutional Changes of Government in Africa: The Case of Madagascar’, Journal of African Union Studies, vol. 1, issues 2 and 3, 2013, pp. 77-98.

 

 63. (with Wu Zhengyu) ‘China's Arms Transfers to Africa and Political Violence’, Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 25, no. 3, 2013, pp. 457-475.

 

 62. (with Simon Shen) 'Ugandan Youths' Perceptions of Relations with China', Asian Perspective, Vol. 36, No. 4, October-December 2012, pp. 693-723

 

61. ‘Spinderella on Safari: British Policies Toward Africa Under New Labour’, Global Governance, vol. 18, no. 4, 2012, pp. 449-460.

 

60. ‘Botswana as a “Development-Oriented Gate-Keeping State”: A Response’, African Affairs, vol. 111, no. 444, 2012, pp. 466-476.

 

59. ‘India’s African Safari’, International Affairs, vol. 88, no. 4, 2012, pp. 779–798.

 

58. (with Meike Froitzheim and Fredrik Söderbaum) ‘The Limits of the EU as a Peace and Security Actor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’, Africa Spectrum, vol. 46, no. 3, 2011, pp. 45-70.

 

57. ‘South African “Imperialism” in a Region Lacking Regionalism: A Critique’, Third World Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1233-1253.  

 

56. (with Wu Zhengyu) ‘From Refusal to Engagement: Chinese Contributions to Peacekeeping in Africa’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 29, issue 2, 2011, pp. 137-154 [re-published in Dominik Kopinski, Andrzej Polus and Ian Taylor(eds.) China's Rise in Africa: Perspectives on a Developing Connection London: Routledge 2012, pp. 9-26].

 

55. (with Dominik Kopinski and Andrzej Polus) 'Contextualising Chinese Engagement in Africa’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 29, issue 2, 2011, pp. 129-136  [re-published in Dominik Kopinski, Andrzej Polus and Ian Taylor (eds.) China's Rise in Africa: Perspectives on a Developing Connection London: Routledge 2012, pp. 1-8].

 

54. (with Pádraig Carmody) ‘Flexigemony and Force in China's Resource Diplomacy in Africa: Sudan and Zambia Compared’, Geopolitics, vol. 15, no. 3, 2010, pp. 1-20 [re-published as ‘Chinese Interests and Strategies’ in Pádraig Carmody The New Scramble for Africa Cambridge: Polity, 2011, pp. 65-94].

 

53. [in Chinese] ‘Fight the Power: A Call for a Rejection of IR’s False Claims to Positivism’, World Economics and Politics (Shijie Jinji yu Zhengzhi), vol. 14, no. 2, 2010, pp. 133-142.

 

52. ‘Governance and Relations Between the European Union and Africa: The Case of NEPAD’, Third World Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 1, 2010, pp 51–67.

 

51. ‘“The South Will Rise Again”? New Alliances and Global Governance: The India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum’, Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science, vol. 36, issue 1, 2009, pp. 45-58.

 

50. (with Xiao Yuhua) ‘A Case of Mistaken Identity: “China Inc.” and its “Imperialism” in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Asian Politics and Policy, vol. 1, no. 4, 2009, pp. 709-725.

 

49. ‘Beyond the New “Two Whateverisms”: China’s Ties in Africa’, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, no. 3, 2008, pp. 181-195.

 

48. (with Shaun Breslin) ‘Explaining the Rise of “Human Rights” in Analyses of Sino-African Relations’, Review of African Political Economy, no. 115, 2008, pp. 59-71.

 

47. (with Kenneth Good) ‘Botswana: A Minimalist Democracy’, Democratization, vol. 15, issue 4, August 2008, pp. 750-765.

 

46. (with Paul Williams) ‘Political Culture, State Elites and Regional Security in West Africa’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 26, issue 2, April 2008, pp. 137-149.

 

45. ‘Sino-African Relations and the Problem of Human Rights’, African Affairs, vol. 107, 2008, pp. 63-87.

 

44. ‘China’s Relations with Nigeria’, Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, vol. 96, issue 392, 2007, pp. 631-645.

 

43. ‘What Fit for the Liberal Peace in Africa?’, Global Society, vol. 21, no. 4, October 2007, pp. 553-566 [re-published in Roger MacGinty and Oliver Richmond (eds.) The Liberal Peace and Post-War Reconstruction: Myth or Reality? London: Routledge, 2009, pp. 101-121].

 

42. ‘Governance in Africa and Sino-African Relations: Contradictions or Confluence?’, Politics, vol. 27, no. 3, 2007, pp. 139–146.

 

41. (with Kenneth Good) ‘Mounting Repression in Botswana’, Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, vol. 96, issue 3, 2007, pp. 275-278.

 

40. ‘Sino-African Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Time for Dialogue’, Chinese Cross Currents, vol. 4, no. 2, 2007, pp. 8-21.

 

39. ‘China’s Oil Diplomacy in Africa’, International Affairs, vol. 82, no. 5, September 2006, pp. 937-960.

 

38. ‘Challenges Facing the Commonwealth and the Millennium Development Goals in Africa’, Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, vol. 95, no. 385, July 2006, pp. 365-382.

 

37. ‘The Limits of the “African Miracle”: Academic Freedom in Botswana and the Deportation of Kenneth Good’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, January 2006, pp. 101-122.

 

36. ‘Le Botswana face à la montée de l’autoritarisme’, Politique Africaine, no. 99, Octobre 2005, pp. 116-129.

 

35. ‘Globalisation Studies and the Developing World: Making International Political Economy Truly Global’, Third World Quarterly. vol. 26, no. 7, 2005, pp. 1025-1042.

 

34. ‘“The Devilish Thing”: The Commonwealth and Zimbabwe’s Denouement’, Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Relations. vol. 94, no. 380, 2005, pp. 367-380.

 

33. ‘“Advice is Judged by Results, Not by Intentions”: Why Gordon Brown is Wrong About Africa’, International Affairs, vol. 81, no. 2, March 2005, pp. 299-310.

 

32. ‘Blind Spots in Analyzing Africa’s Place in World Politics’, Global Governance, vol. 10, no. 4, October-December 2004, pp. 411-417.

 

31. ‘APEC, Globalization, and 9/11: The Debate on What Constitutes Asian Regionalism’, Critical Asian Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, 2004, pp. 323-354 [republished in Garry Rodan and Kevin Hewison (eds.) Neoliberalism and Conflict in Asia After 9/11 London: Routledge, 2006, pp. 84-99].

 

30. (with J. Andrew Grant) ‘Global Governance and Conflict Diamonds: The Kimberley Process and the Quest for Clean Gems’, Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Relations, vol. 93, no. 375, July 2004, pp. 385-401 [re-published in Laurence Helfer (ed.) Human Rights Eagan, MN: Foundation Press, 2009, pp. 283-305].

 

29. ‘The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’, New Political Economy, vol. 8, no. 3, November 2003, pp. 409-418.

 

28. ‘La politique sud-africaine et le Nepad: Contradictions et compromis’, Politique Africaine, no. 91, Octobre 2003, pp. 120-138.

 

27. ‘Globalisation and Regionalisation in Africa: Reactions to Attempts at Neo-liberal Regionalism’, Review of International Political Economy, vol. 10, no. 2, May 2003, pp. 310-330.

 

26. ‘As Good as it Gets? Botswana’s “Democratic Development”’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, May 2003, pp. 215-231 [re-published in Henning Melber (ed.) Limits to Liberation in Southern Africa: The Unfinished Business of Democratic Consolidation Pretoria: HSRC, 2003, pp. 72-92].

 

25. ‘Conflict in Central Africa: Clandestine Networks and Regional/Global Configurations’, Review of African Political Economy, vol. 30, no. 95, March 2003, pp. 45-55.

 

24. (with Gladys Mokhawa) ‘Not Forever: Botswana, Conflict Diamonds and the Bushmen’, African Affairs, vol. 102, 2003, pp. 261-283.

 

23. ‘New World Orders Without End? An Intellectual History of Post-War North-South Relations’, Afrika Zamani: An Annual Journal of African History, nos. 9 and 10, 2001-2002, pp. 1-18.

 

22. (with Paul Williams) ‘The Limits of Engagement: British Foreign Policy and the Crisis in Zimbabwe’, International Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, July 2002, pp. 547-566.

 

21. ‘South Africa’s Transition to Democracy and the “Change Industry”: A Case Study of IDASA’, Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science, vol. 29, no. 1, May 2002, pp. 31-48.

 

20. ‘The New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the Zimbabwe Elections: Implications and Prospects for the Future’, African Affairs, vol. 101, issue 404, 2002, pp. 403-412.

 

19. (with Philip Nel) ‘“Getting the Rhetoric Right”, Getting the Strategy Wrong: “New Africa”, Globalisation and the Confines of Elite Reformism’, Third World Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 1, February 2002, pp. 163-180.

 

18. ‘Taiwan’s Foreign Policy and Africa: The Limitations of Dollar Diplomacy’, Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 11, no. 30, February 2002, pp. 125-140.

 

17. (with Fredrik Söderbaum) ‘Transmission Belt for Transnational Capital or Facilitator for Development? Problematising the Role of the State in the Maputo Development Corridor’, Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 39, no. 4, December 2001, pp. 675-695.

 

16. (with Paul Williams) ‘South African Foreign Policy and the Great Lakes Crisis: African Renaissance Meets Vagabondage Politique?’, African Affairs, vol. 100, issue 399, 2001, pp. 265-286.

 

15. (with Andrew Cooper) ‘“Out of Africa” Versus “Made in Africa”: Comparing South Africa’s Non-Leadership with Canada’s Leadership in the 1996 Crisis in Eastern Zaire’, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, vol. 39, no. 1, March 2001, pp. 23-41.

 

14. ‘Rethinking the Study of International Relations in South Africa’, Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science vol. 27, no. 2, November 2000, pp. 207-220.

 

13. (with Scarlett Cornelissen) ‘The Political Economy of Chinese and Japanese Linkages with Africa: A Comparative Perspective’, Pacific Review, vol. 13, no. 4, 2000, pp. 615-633.

 

12. ‘The Cairns Group and the Commonwealth: Bridge-Building for International Trade’, Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Relations, no. 355, July 2000, pp. 375- 386.

 

11. (with Peter Vale) ‘South Africa’s Transition Revisited: Globalisation as Vision and Virtue’, Global Society, vol. 14, no. 3, July 2000, pp. 399-414.

 

10. (with Philip Nel and Janis van der Westhuizen) ‘Multilateralism in South Africa’s Foreign Policy: The Search for a Critical Rationale’, Global Governance, 6, 2000, pp. 43-60.

 

9. ‘Legitimisation and De-legitimisation Within a Multilateral Organisation: South Africa and the Commonwealth’, Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science, vol.27, no. 1, May 2000, pp. 51-72.

 

8. (with Paul Williams) and ‘Neo-liberalism and the Political Economy of the “New” South Africa’, New Political Economy, vol. 5, no. 1, March 2000, pp. 21-40.

 

7. ‘The Ambiguous Commitment: The People’s Republic of China and the Anti-Apartheid Struggle in South Africa’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, January 2000, pp. 91-106.

 

6. (with Peter Vale) ‘South Africa’s Post-Apartheid Foreign Policy Five Years On—From Pariah State to “Just Another Country”?’, Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Relations, no. 352, October 1999, pp. 629-634.

 

5. ‘China’s Foreign Policy Towards Africa in the 1990s’, Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, September 1998, pp. 443-460.

 

4. ‘Africa’s Place in the Diplomatic Competition Between Beijing and Taipei’, Issues and Studies: Journal of Chinese Studies and International Affairs, vol. 34, no. 3, March 1998, pp. 126-143.

 

3. ‘China and SWAPO: the Role of the People's Republic of China in Namibia's Liberation and Post-independence Relations', South African Journal of International Affairs, vol. 5, issue 1, January 1997, pp. 110-122.

 

2. ‘Mainland China-Angola Relations: Moving From Debacle to Détente’, Issues and Studies: Journal of Chinese Studies and International Affairs, vol. 33, no. 9, 1997, pp. 64-81.

 

1.‘The “Captive States” of Southern Africa and China: The PRC and Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland,” Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, vol. 35, no. 2, 1997, pp. 75-95.


Book Chapters

75. ‘China’s Peacekeeping Efforts in Africa: Assessing the Contributions, Future Prospects, and Challenges’ in Thierry Tardy and Marco Wyss (eds.) Peacekeeping in Africa: The Evolving Security Architecture London: Routledge, 2014, pp. 93-112.

 

74. ‘Botswana as a Small Developmental State’ in Clive Archer, Alyson Bailies and Anders Wivel (eds.) Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond London: Routledge, 2014, pp. 187-201.

 

73. ‘The Global South’ in Thomas Weiss and Rorden Wilkinson (eds.) International Organization and Global Governance London: Routledge, 2014, pp. 279-291.

72. ‘Regional Economic Governance in Africa’ in A.S. Yaruingam and Rashmi Kapoor (eds.) Inside Africa: Contemporary Perspectives Delhi: Shipra Publiications, 2013, pp. 87-105.

 

71. ‘Of Big Men and Big Ideas: Can NEPAD’s APRM Make a Difference?’ in A.S. Yaruingam and Rashmi Kapoor (eds.) Inside Africa: Contemporary Perspectives Delhi: Shipra Publiications, 2013, pp. 3-20.

 

70. ‘China’s Role in African Security’ in James Hentz (ed.) Routledge Handbook of African Security London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 245-257.

 

69. ‘Global Economy, Development Imperatives, and Mutual Interests: China and Africa’ in Xiaoming Huang and Robert Patman (eds.) China and the International System: Becoming a World Power London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 181-196.

 

68. ‘The Growth of China in Africa’ in John Harbeson and Donald Rothchild (eds.) Africa in World Politics: Engaging A Changing Global Order Boulder. CO: Westview Press, 2013, pp. 285-309.

 

67. ‘Africa’s Place in International Relations: Domestic Politics, Global Linkages’ in Maurizio Carbone (ed.) The European Union in Africa: Incoherent Policies, Asymmetrical Partnership, Declining Relevance? Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013, pp. 77-97.

 

66. ‘Spatial Development Initiatives: Two Cases from Southern Africa’ in Scarlett Cornelissen, J. Andrew Grant and Timothy Shaw (eds.) The Research Companion to Regionalisms Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012, pp. 325-338.

 

65. Dominik Kopinski, Andrzej Polus and Ian Taylor ‘Contextualising Chinese Engagement in Africa’ in Dominik Kopinski, Andrzej Polus and Ian Taylor (eds.) China's Rise in Africa: Perspectives on a Developing Connection London: Routledge 2012, pp. 1-8.

 

64. ‘Sino-African Relations and the Implications for the EU’s “Partnership” with Africa’ in Tony Chafer and Gordon Cumming (eds.) From Rivalry to Partnership? New Approaches to the Challenges of Africa Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011, pp. 195-206.

 

63. ‘The EU's Perceptions and Interests Towards China's Rising Influence on Human Rights in Africa’ in Jing Men and Benjamin Barton (eds.) China and the European Union in Africa: Partners or Competitors? Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011, pp. 127-146.

 

62. ‘China’s Rise in Africa’ in Simon Shen and Jean-Marc Blanchard (eds.) The Multidimensional Diplomacy of Contemporary China Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010, pp. 253-266.

 

61. ‘Botswana: le mythe du “miracle africain” in François Polet (ed.) Etat des résistances dans le Sud Paris: Éditions Syllepse, 2010, pp. 173-178.

 

60. ‘A Challenge to the Global Liberal Order? The Growing Chinese Relationship with Africa’ in Shaun Breslin (ed.) The Handbook of China’s International Relations London: Routledge, 2010, pp. 187-199.

 

59. ‘Liberal Peace, Liberal Imperialism: A Gramscian Critique’ in Oliver Richmond (ed.) Palgrave Advances in Peacebuilding: Critical Development and Approaches London: Palgrave, 2010, pp. 154-174.

 

58. ‘Growing Multipolarity, Coalitions and Global Governance’ in Dries Lesage and Pierre Vercauteren (eds.) Contemporary Global Governance: Multipolarity vs. New Discourses on Global Governance Brussels: Peter Lang, 2010, pp. 63-80.

 

57. ‘The People’s Republic of China’ in David Black and Paul Williams (eds.) The International Politics of Mass Atrocities: The Case of Darfur London: Routledge, 2010, pp. 176-194.

 

56. ‘Engaging Chinese Expansion in Africa: Policy Implications for Washington’ in Robert Tomes, Angela Mancini and James Kirkhope (eds.) Africa at the Crossroads: Perspectives on US-China-Africa Security Affairs New York: Council for Emerging National Security Affairs, pp. 97-105.

 

55. ‘Earth Calling the Liberals: Locating the Political Culture of Sierra Leone as the Terrain for “Reform”’ in Edward Newman, Roland Paris and Oliver Richmond (eds.) New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2009, pp. 159-177.

 

54. (with Fredrik Söderbaum)State, Region and Space in Africa’ in Ulf Engel and Paul Nugent (eds.) Respacing Africa Leiden: Brill, 2009, pp. 45-70.

 

53. (with Eduard Jordaan) ‘Beyond the New Partnership for Africa’s Development Peer Review’ in Patrick Bond and Ashwin Desai (eds.) Foreign Policy, Bottom-Up: South African Civil Society and the Globalisation of Popular Solidarity Durban: Centre for Civil Society, 2008, pp. 151-164.

 

52. ‘Sino-Nigerian Relations: FTZs, Textiles and Oil’ Arthur Waldron (ed.) China in Africa Washington DC: Jamestown Foundation, 2008, pp. 63-66.

 

51. ‘China’s Arms Sales to Africa’ in Arthur Waldron (ed.) China in Africa Washington DC: Jamestown Foundation, 2008, pp. 36-41.

 

50. ‘Considering Micro-regionalism in Africa in the Twenty-First Century’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Afro-Regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-Regionalism in Africa Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2008, pp. 1-13.

 

49. ‘Competing Region-building in the Maputo Development Corridor’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Afro-Regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-Regionalism in Africa Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2008, pp. 35-52.

 

48. ‘Las crecientes relaciones entre China y África: deshilando las implicaciones’ in Guillermo Martínez and Christopher Burke (eds.) África, la Nueva Frontera China Barcelona: Casa Asia y Casa África, 2008, pp. 124-136.

 

47. ‘China’s Growth into Sub-Saharan Africa’ in Luca Castellani, Pang Zhongying and Ian Taylor (eds.) China Outside China: China in Africa Turin: Centro di Alti Studi Sulla Cina Contemporanea, 2007, pp. 7-21.

 

46. (with Mpho Molomo, Zibani Maundeni and Bertha Osei-Hwedie) ‘Botswana’ in Gavin Cawthra, Andre du Pisani and Abillah Omari (eds.) Security and Democracy in Southern Africa Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2007, pp. 61-79.

 

45.  ‘The Periphery Strikes Back? The G20 at the WTO’ in Donna Lee and Rorden Wilkinson (eds.) The WTO After Hong Kong: Progress in, and Prospects for, the Doha Development Agenda London: Routledge, 2007, pp. 155-168.

 

44. ‘Botswana: une société civile faible et menacée’ in François Polet (ed.) Etat des résistances dans le Sud – 2007 Paris: Centre Tricontinental, 2007, pp. 119-123. Also published as ‘Botswana’s Civil Society: Weak and Under Threat’ in François Polet (ed.) The State of Resistance: Popular Struggles in the South London: Zed Books, 2007, pp. 123-126.

 

43. ‘When “Good Economics” Do Not Make Good Sense’ in Malinda Smith (ed.) Beyond the “African Tragedy”: Discourses on Development and the Global Economy Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006, pp. 85-104.  

 

42. ‘NEPAD and the Global Political Economy: Towards the African Century or Another False Start?’ in Jimi Adesina, Yao Graham and Adebayo Olukoshi (eds.) Africa and Development Challenges in the New Millennium: The NEPAD Debate London: Zed Books, 2006, pp. 63-85.

 

41. ‘When Rhetoric Isn’t Enough: Contradictions in South African Foreign Policy and NEPAD’ in Walter Carlsnaes and Philip Nel (eds.) In Full Flight: South African Foreign Policy After Apartheid Midrand: Institute for Global Dialogue, 2006, pp. 164-174.

 

40. (with Paul Williams) ‘Understanding South Africa’s Multilateralism’ in Donna Lee, Ian Taylor and Paul Williams (eds.) The New Multilateralism in South Africa’s Diplomacy Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006, pp. 1-25.


39. ‘South Africa and the Non-Proliferation Treaty’ in Donna Lee, Ian Taylor and Paul Williams (eds.) The New Multilateralism in South Africa’s Diplomacy Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006, pp. 159-181

 

38. (with Donna Lee and Paul Williams) ‘Reflections on a Decade of Multilateral Diplomacy’ in Donna Lee, and Paul Williams (eds.) The New Multilateralism in South Africa’s Diplomacy Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006, pp. 205-217.

 

37. ‘“Partnership” Through Accommodation? African Development Initiatives and Universal Policy Prescriptions’ in Henning Melber (ed.) Africa, Regional Co-operation and the World Market: Socio-Economic Strategies in Times of Global Trade Regimes Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2006, pp. 9-39.

 

36. (with Kenneth Good) ‘Unpacking the “Model”: Presidential Succession in Botswana’ in Roger Southall and Henning Melber (eds.) Legacies of Power: Leadership Change and Former Presidents in African Politics Cape Town: HSRC Press/Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2006, pp. 51-72.

 

35. ‘The Logic of Disorder: “Malignant Regionalization” in Central Africa’ in Morten Boas, Marianne Marchand and Timothy M. Shaw (eds.) Political Economy of Regions and Regionalisms Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005, pp. 147-166.

 

34. (with Pamela Mbabazi) ‘Botswana and Uganda as Developmental States (?)’ in Pamela Mbabazi and Ian Taylor (eds.) The Potentiality of “Developmental States” in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared Dakar: Codesria, 2005, pp. 1-15.

 

33. ‘The Developmental State in Africa: The Case of Botswana’ in Pamela Mbabazi and Ian Taylor (eds.) The Potentiality of “Developmental States” in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared Dakar: Codesria, 2005, pp. 44-56.

 

32. (with Pamela Mbabazi) ‘Conclusion: Developmental States and Africa in the Twenty-First Century’ in Pamela Mbabazi and Ian Taylor (eds.) The Potentiality of “Developmental States” in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared Dakar: Codesria, 2005, pp. 147-152.

 

31. ‘South Africa: Beyond the Impasse in Global Governance’ in John English, Ramesh Thakur and Andrew Cooper (eds.) Reforming from the Top: A Leaders’ 20 Summit Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2005, pp. 230-259.

 

30. ‘Conflict and Violence in Central Africa: The Political Economy Behind Internal and External Networks in Fomenting War in the Sub-Region’ in E.S.D. Fomin and John Forje (eds.) Central Africa: Crises, Reform and Reconstruction Dakar: Codesria, 2005, pp. 241-258.

 

29. ‘Globalisation and Development’ in Jeffrey Haynes (ed.) Palgrave Advances in Development Studies Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005, pp. 268-287.

 

28. ‘Botswana’s “Developmental State” and the Politics of Legitimacy’ in Graham Harrison (ed.) Global Encounters: International Political Economy, Development and Globalisation Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005, pp. 41-62.

 

27. ‘The Contradictions and Continuities of South African Trade Policy’ in Dominic Kelly and Wyn Grant (eds.) The Politics of International Trade: Actors, Issues, and Regional Dynamics. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2005, pp. 295-308.

 

26. ‘The Globalization Myth and the Discourse of South Africa’s Democratic Transition’ in Claude Féral (ed.) Founding Myths of the New South Africa Réunion: Université de la Réunion, 2004, pp. 31-56.

 

25. (with Mpho Molomo, Bertha Osei-Hwedie, David Sebudubudu and Shelly Whitman) ‘Country Study: Botswana’ in Chandré Gould and Guy Lamb (eds.) Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2004, pp. 22-46.

 

24. ‘The HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Botswana: Implications for the “African Miracle”’ in Nana Poku and Alan Whiteside (eds.) The Political Economy of AIDS in Africa Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004, pp. 151-164.

 

23. ‘The “Democratisation” of South African Foreign Policy: Critical Reflections on an Untouchable Subject’, in Philip Nel and Janis van der Westhuizen (eds.) Democratizing Foreign Policy? Lessons from South Africa Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 2004, pp.23-38.

 

22. ‘Botswana’ in Anna Reid (ed.) Lion Cubs? Lessons from Africa’s Success Stories London: Policy Exchange, 2004, pp. 53-70.

 

21. (with Paul Williams) ‘Understanding Africa’s Place in World Politics’ in Ian Taylor and Paul Williams (eds.) Africa in International Politics: External Involvement on the Continent London: Routledge 2004, pp. 1-22.

 

20. ‘The “All-weather Friend? Sino-African Interaction in the Twenty-first Century’ in Ian Taylor and Paul Williams (eds.) Africa in International Politics: External Involvement on the Continent London: Routledge 2004, pp. 83-101.

 

19. ‘Hegemony, Neo-Liberal “Good Governance” and the International Monetary Fund: A Gramscian Perspective’ in Morten Bøås and Desmond McNeill (eds.) The Role of Ideas in Multilateral Institutions New York: Routledge, 2003, pp. 124-136.

 

18. (with Fredrik Söderbaum) ‘Understanding the Dynamics of Micro-regionalism in Southern Africa’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of the Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 1-18.

 

17. (with Fredrik Söderbaum) ‘The Role of the State in the Maputo Development Corridor’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of the Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 41-52.

 

16. (with Xenia Ngwenya) ‘Public-Private Partnerships and African Development: The Case of the N4 Toll Road’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of the Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 70-82.

 

15. (with Iraê Baptista-Lundin) ‘A View from Maputo’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of the Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 97-105.

 

14. (with Fredrik Söderbaum) ‘Conclusion’ in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds.) Regionalism and Uneven Development in Southern Africa: The Case of the Maputo Development Corridor Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 106-116.

 

13. ‘Drowning with Neglect? The Issue of Water Security in East Asia and the Role of APEC’, in Morten Böås and James Hentz (eds.) New Critical Security and Regionalism: Beyond the Nation State Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003, pp. 17-32.

 

12. ‘The Maputo Development Corridor: Whose Corridor? Whose Development?’, in Shaun Breslin and Glenn Hook (eds.) Micro-Regionalism and World Order Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2003, pp. 144-165.

 

11. (with Bernedette Muthien) ‘The Return of the Dogs of War?: The Privatisation of Security in Africa’, in Thomas Biersteker and Rodney Hall (eds.) The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 183-199.

 

10. ‘Good Governance or Good for Business? South Africa’s Regionalist Project and the “African Renaissance”’, in Shaun Breslin, Christopher Hughes, Nicola Phillips and Ben Rosamond (eds.) New Regionalisms in the Global Political Economy: Theories and Cases London: Routledge, 2002, pp. 190-203.

 

9. ‘Neo-liberalism and Democracy: The Role of Intellectuals in South Africa’s Transition’ in Henning Melber (ed.) Political Cultures in Democratic South Africa Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2002, pp. 34-52.

 

8. ‘Botswana’s Strategies for Gaborone’s Place in the Global Economy’ in Philip Nel (ed.) State/Society Responses to Globalisation: Comparative Perspectives from Japan and Southern Africa Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch, 2002, pp. 177-194.

 

7. ‘Zimbabwe’s Debacle, Africa’s Response and the Implications for the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)’ in Henning Melber (ed.) Zimbabwe’s Presidential Elections 2002: Evidence, Lessons, and Implications Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2002, pp. 68-75 (slightly different version published as ‘Zimbabwe and the Death of NEPAD’ in Patrick Bond (ed.) Fanon’s Warning: A Civil Society Reader on the New Partnership for Africa’s Development Trenton: Africa World Press, 2002, pp. 68-72).

 

6. ‘China’s Relations with Africa in the Post-Maoist Era, 1978-1999’, in Frank Columbus (ed.) Current Politics and Economics of Africa, Volume I Huntingdon, New York: Nova Science, 2001, pp. 83-106.

 

5. ‘The APEC Forum and the Promotion of Neo-liberalism: Advancing or Weakening Asian Security?’ in Andrew Tan and Kenneth Boutin (eds.) Non-Traditional Security Issues in Southeast Asia Singapore: Select Publishing/Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, 2001, pp. 410-435.

 

4. ‘The “Mbeki Initiative”: Towards a Post-Orthodox New International Order?’ in Philip Nel, Ian Taylor and Janis van der Westhuizen (eds.) South Africa’s Multilateral Diplomacy and Global Change: The Limits of Reform Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001, pp. 59-75.

 

3. (with Philip Nel and Janis van der Westhuizen) ‘Reformist Initiatives and South Africa’s Multilateral Diplomacy: A Framework for Understanding’ in Philip Nel, Ian Taylor and Janis van der Westhuizen (eds.) South Africa’s Multilateral Diplomacy and Global Change: The Limits of Reform Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001, pp. 1-30.

 

2. (with Janis van der Westhuizen and Philip Nel) ‘Of Rogues, Rebels, Renegades and Reformers: South African Diplomacy in Context’ in Philip Nel, Ian Taylor and Janis van der Westhuizen (eds.) South Africa’s Multilateral Diplomacy and Global Change: The Limits of Reform Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001, pp. 111-125.

 

1. ‘Globalisation and Democracy: Rethinking the Link Between Africa’s “Democratisation”, Aid, and Neo-Liberalism’ in Lisa Thompson (ed.) Development, Democracy and Aid in Southern Africa Bellville: University of the Western Cape, 2000, pp. 56-74.

 


Administration

IR representative, William and Mary/St Andrews Joint Degree programme, 2013-.

School of International Relations Management Committee, 2013-. 

Sub-Honours Adviser, 2012-.

Study Abroad/International Exchanges Coordinator, 2010-.

Chair, School website committee, 2009-present.

Senate Scrutineer, election of Rector, 2008.

Dean’s Representative, Hiring Committee for Dept. of Art History, 2008.

Chair, Workload Committee, 2008.

Deputy Director, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, 2005-present.

Visiting Speakers’ Organiser, School of International Relations, 2005-2006.

Elected member, University Senate, 2005-.

Chair, School Research Ethics Committee, 2005-2009.

School Teaching Committee, 2005-2009.

Honours adviser (Junior and Senior), School of International Relations, 2004-2008.

Postgraduate Committee, School of International Relations, 2005-2009.

Laureation speech for Adam Hochschild for Degree of Doctor of Letters honoris causa, 2008.

 


Affiliations

Member, Advisory Board, Polish Centre for African Studies, 2011-present.

Consultant, Europe-China Research and Advice Network, 2011-present.

Visiting Professor, School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Lee Hysan Visiting Professor, Centre for China Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.

Member, Royal African Society.

Member, Scottish Centre for Chinese Social Science Research, University of Glasgow.

Member, Advisory Board of Frontier Strategy Group (Washington DC), 2009-present.

Visiting Faculty, Faculty of Development Studies, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.

 


Grants

Kemp Family ‘“Land Grabs” in Africa and the impact on Food Security’, $10,000, 2013.

Marco Polo Santander Award ‘China Exchange’, £6,250, 2011.

Dept. for International Development, ‘China’s Growing Influence on International Peacebuilding’ [collaboration with Saferworld], £50,020, 2010.

Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange ‘Chinese SEZs in Africa’, €17,000, 2010.

Department for International Development, ‘China’s Growing Influence on International Peacebuilding’ [collaboration with Saferworld],  £50,020, 2010.

Chinese Ministry of Education ‘Research on Sino-African Cooperative Relations in the New Era’ [collaboration with Zhejiang Normal University], 700,000 Chinese yuan [£72,000], 2010.

Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland “Chinese Special Economic Zones in Africa: Catalysts for Development?”, £27,306, 2009.

Lee Hysan Visiting Scholar, Universities Service Centre for China Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2009.

 

Allan and Nesta Ferguson Charitable Trust “Rethinking the Liberal Peace in the Sub-Saharan African Context”, £68,400, 2007.

 

Taiwan Foundation for Democracy “China and Taiwan’s Foreign Diplomacy: Comparing Relations in Africa and the Implications for Africa’s Nascent Democratic Renaissance”, £2,850, 2007.

 

Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, ‘Research trip to Nigeria’, £1,450, 2007.

 

Russell Trust Development Award, ‘China’s Expansion into Africa: The Human Rights Implications’, £4,500, 2007.

 

Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange ‘China’s Relationship(s) with Africa: The Political Economy of a Fast-Developing Connection’, €17,600, 2006.

 

Russell Trust Development Award, ‘Workshop on the Liberal Peace in Africa’, £4,000, 2006.

 

British Academy Small Research Grants, ‘China’s Expansion into Africa: Political and Economic Implications’, £4,950, 2005.

 

Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, ‘Research trip to Hong Kong’, £1,450, 2005.

 

“Senior Arts Researcher of the Year, 2004”, University of Botswana, 2004.

 

Faculty of Social Science, University of Botswana Conference Grant, $1,300, 2004.

 

“Emerging Arts Researcher of the Year, 2003”, University of Botswana, $1,500, 2003.

 

Council for Social Science Research in Africa project grant for ‘The Potentiality of Developmental States in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared’, $14,000, 2002.

 

Office of Research and Development, University of Botswana, project grant for ‘Comparative Development in Southern Africa: Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe’, $3,000, 2002.

 

 


Editorial Positions

EDITOR

African Security, 2007-present  

Review of International Studies, 2005-2010

Botswana Notes and Records, 2002-2004 

ECPR Third World Politics Standing Group newsletter, 2004-2006.

 

EDITORIAL/ADVISORY BOARD MEMBER

Botswana Notes and Records, 2009-present.

Central European Africa Studies Review, 2012-present.

Diplomatic Edge, 2013-present.

Economic and Political Studies, 2012-present.

Estudos Internacionais, 2012-present.

Governance in Africa, 2013-present.  

Insight on Africa, 2013-present.

Journal of African American Studies, 2012-present.

Journal of African Governance, 2013-present.

Journal of African Union Studies, 2012-present. 

Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 2005-present

Journal of Global Analysis, 2009- present

Journal of International Relations and Development, 2012-present.

Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 2007-present

Peacebuilding, 2011-present

Politeia: South African Journal for Political Science and Public Administration, 2012-present.

SPIRIT (Sciences politique, relations internationales, territoire), Sciences Po, Bordeaux, France, 2009-present

United Nations University - Comparative Regional Integration Studies, 2008-present.


Invited Talks, Lectures and Seminars

About 200 presentations at conferences and workshops on six continents.


Media

Radio: Interviewed for Australian Broadcasting Corporation (Canberra), BBC Radio 4 (London), China Radio International (Beijing), Danish Broadcasting Corporation (Copenhagen), Deutsche Welle (Bonn), Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK), Ya Rona FM (Gaborone), Gabz FM (Gaborone), Bush Radio (Cape Town), Punt Radio (Johannesburg), Russian World Service (Moscow); SABC (Johannesburg); Radio France International (Paris), Voice of America (Washington DC).

Television: Interviewed by Africa Television (Netherlands); BBC2 Newsnight; Botswana Television (BTV); Ethiopian Television (ETV); Hungarian television (MEgy); National Broadcasting Company (NBC); Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK); Public Broadcasting Service (PBS); Reuters (Beijing office); South African television (SABC); SABC documentary programme “Carte Blanche”; Economic Commission for Africa documentary on African development issues.

Newspapers/magazines/press agencies: Interviewed by ACP-EU Courier (Brussels); Adnkronos International (Rome); The Age (Melbourne); Agence France-Presse (Paris); Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (The Hague); Al Jazeera (Doha); Arbetaren (Stockholm); BBC News Online (London); Caixin Media (Beijing); Cape Times (Cape Town); China Daily (Beijing); China Daily-Africa Edition (Nairobi); China Report (Beijing); Daily News (Harare); Daily Telegraph (London); The Diplomat (Tokyo); Dow Jones Newswire (Beijing);  Euromoney Country Risk Survey (London); Financial Times (London); France24 (Paris); Fucsia (Bogota); The Guardian (London); Helsingin Sanomat (Helsinki); The Herald (Glasgow); The Independent (London); Islamic Republic News Agency (Tehran); Mail and Guardian (Johannesburg); Mmegi (Gaborone); Newsweek (New York); Pravda (Bratislava); La Repubblica (Rome); Reuters (Nairobi); Sanlian Lifeweek Magazine (Beijing); The Scotsman (Edinburgh); South African (London); South China Morning Post (Hong Kong); Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich); Sunday Guardian (New Delhi); Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney); Tamil Guardian (Colombo); The Times (London); Thomson (Johannesburg); Toronto Star (Toronto); Wall Street Journal(New York).

 


PhD Supervision topics

PhD Students Successfully Supervised to Completion

 

Steven Davies (United Kingdom) ‘The Political Economy of Land Tenure in Ethiopia’, 2008.

 

Inga Jacobs (South Africa) ‘Norms and Transboundary Co-operation in Africa: The Case of the Orange-Senqu and Nile Rivers’, 2010.

 

Gladys Mokhawa (Botswana) ‘The Regionalisation of Security and the Reconstruction of a Region: SADC’s Critical and Ironic Security Dynamics’, 2010.

 

Walter Lotze (South Africa) ‘Interventionist Norm Development: The Responsibility to Protect as a Norm Too Far?’, 2010.

 

Sarah Whiteford (Canada) ‘Dividing Lines, Converging Aims: A Moral Analysis of Micro-regionalism in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire’, 2011.

 

Steven Kuo (South Africa) ‘Am I My Brother’s Keeper? An Examination of the Chinese Model of Peacebuilding in Africa’, 2012.

 

Heidi Østbø Haugen (Norway) ‘Changing Markets from Below: Trade and Movement of People between China and Africa’, 2013.

 

Honita Cowaloosur (Mauritius) ‘Reinscribing Dependency: The Political Economy of Mauritius JinFei Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone’, 2014.

 

Julian Graef (United States) ‘Peacebuilding as Capacity-building in Rural Liberia’, 2014.

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