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Anthony F Lang, Jr

Professor, Head of School

Room: 243

Office Hours Tuesday, 10am - 1pm

Tel: 3006



All Head of School matters should be sent to

Anthony F Lang, Jr holds a Chair in International Political Theory in the School of International Relations at the University of St Andrews where he founded the Centre for Global Constitutionalism. He received his PhD in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1996. He was an assistant professor of political science at the American University in Cairo, Egypt from 1996-2000. From 2000-2003, he served as a programme officer at the Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs, where he directed programmes on ethics and the use of force, religion and US foreign policy, and ethics in higher education. He has served as president of the International Ethics section of the International Studies Association (2003-2004), programme chair of the Human Rights Section of ISA (2006-2008), and Chair of the International Ethics section Book Prize Committee (2009-2011). He currently serves as the Chair of the Academic Freedom Committee of the International Studies Association. He serves on the editorial boards of Global Constitutionalism, Journal of International Political Theory and Ethics & International Affairs. He is also commissioning editor of the new series, Global Ethics from Routledge Publishers.



Keywords: International Political Theory; Global Constitutionalism; International Ethics, International Law; International Organizations; Middle East Politics and Law; and the Just War Tradition

My research focuses on the intersection of ethics, politics, and law at the global level. One stream of this research focuses on global constitutionalism, or how various aspects of the international political and legal order relate to the rule of law and an institutional balance of power. A second stream of research focuses on the responsibility of both individuals and states in the international legal and political order. A third stream focuses on constitutionalism in the Middle East, with particular attention to Egypt and the politics and law of the post-Arab Spring. A fourth stream of research focuses on the ethical and legal issues of the use of military force largely within the framework of the just war tradition.

My previous work has addressed international political theory, with a particular focus on questions of agency, responsibility and punishment. I have explored these issues in the context of various global practices such as humanitarian intervention, international security strategy, war crimes, and counter terrorism policy. In this research stream, I have explored how is it that various agents in the international system are held responsible and/or accountable for policies at the global level. A corollary to this research is a focus on whether or not agents in the international system are punished when they are held responsible, and who ought to be punishing them.  I have also done work on the political theory of Hannah Arendt, the IR theory of Hans Morgenthau, and humanitarian intervention.


Book in Progress

  • Global Constitutionalism: Law, Limits and Power

Published Books

  • International Political Theory: An Introduction (Palgrave, 2015) Palgrave
  • Punishment, Justice and International Relations: Ethics and Order after the Cold War (London: Routledge, 2008) Routledge
  • Agency and Ethics: The Politics of Military Intervention (Albany: SUNY Press, 2002) Amazon

Edited Books

Books in Progress or Under Review

  • Handbook on Global Constitutionalism, edited with Antje Wiener (Edward Elgar Press, forthcoming)

Published Books

  • With Cian O'Driscoll and John Williams, The Just War Tradition: The Practice of Authority and Authority in Practice (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013) Georgetown University Press
  • With Amanda Beattie, War, Torture and Terrorism: Rethinking the Rules of International Security (London: Routledge, 2008) Routledge
  • With John Williams, Hannah Arendt and International Relations: Reading Across the Lines (New York: Palgrave Press, 2005) Amazon
  • Political Theory and International Relations: Hans J. Morgenthau on Aristotle’s The Politics (Westport CT: Praeger Press, 2004) Amazon
  • With Joel Rosenthal and Albert C. Pierce Ethics and the Future of Conflict: Lessons from the 1990s, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 2004) Amazon
  • Just Intervention, (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003) Georgetown University Press


Articles in progress or under review

  • “The American Way of Intervention” with Michael Boyle
  • “Constituent Power in International Political Theory”
  • “International Authority: Theory and Practice in International Relations”
  • “An Economic Interpretation of the (Global) Constitution

Peer reviewed articles

  • "Thomas Hobbes and a 'Chastened' Global Constitution: Contesting the Boundaries of the Law" Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19, 1 (January 2016): 103-119
  • With Aidan Hehir, " The Limits of Cooperation:  The Impact of the Security Council on the Efficacy of the International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect " Criminal Law Review 26, 1 (March 2015): 153-179
  • "From Revolutions to Constitutions: The Case of Egypt" International Affairs 89, 2 (March 2013):345-364
  • “Ethics, Justice and Security” in Robert Denmark, ed. International Studies Encyclopedia, Volume III (Wiley Blackwell, 2010): 1619-1638
  • "The Just War Tradition and the Question of Authority" Journal of Military Ethics 8, 3 (2009): 202-216
  • "Conflicting Rules: Global Constitutionalism and the Kosovo Intervention" Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 3,2 (2009): 185-204
  • "Punishment and Peace: Critical Reflections on Countering Terrorism" Millennium 36, 3 (May 2008): 493-511
  • "The Violence of Rules: Rethinking the 2003 War against Iraq" Contemporary Politics 13, 3 (September 2007): 257-276.
  • "Crime and Punishment: Holding States Accountable" Ethics & International Affairs 21, 2 (2007): 239-257
  • "Punitive Justifications or Just Punishment? An Ethical Reading of Coercive Diplomacy" Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19, 3 (2006): 389-403
  • "The Role(s) of Rules: Some Conceptual Clarifications" with Nicholas Rengger and William Walker, International Relations 20 (2006): 274-294
  • "Responsibility in the International System: Reading U. S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East" European Journal of International Relations, 5, 1 (March 1999): 67-107
  • "Between Theory and History: The Remains of the Day in the International Relations Classroom" with James M. Lang, PS: Politics and Political Science, 31, 2 (June 1998): 209-215

Other journal articles

  • "Just War as Political Theory: Intention, Cause and Authority" Political Theory 44, 2 (April 2016): 289-303
  • "Thomas Hobbes: Theorist of the Law" with Gabriella Slomp Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19, 1 (January 2016): 1-11 Hard Times: Progressive Narratives, Historical Contingency and the Fate of Global Constitutionalism" with Jeffery L. Dunoff, Antje Wiener, Mattias Kumm and James Tully Global Constitutionalism 4, 1 (2015): 1-17
  • "How Large is the World of Global Constitutionalism?" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism 3, 1 (2014): 1-8
  • "Interdisciplinarity: Challenges and Opportunities" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism, 2, 1 (2013): 1-5
  • "Global Constitutionalism: Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law" with Antje Wiener, Jim Tully, Miguel Poiares Maduro, and Mattias Kumm Global Constitutionalism 1, 1 (2012): 1-15
  • "Kant and the Supreme Proprietor: A Response to Howard Williams" Kantian Review 15, 2 (2010): 78-89
  • "The Politics of Punishing Terrorists" Ethics & International Affairs 24, 1 (2010): 3-12

Online articles

Book Reviews

  • Review of Maria Fanis, Secular Morality and International Security: American and British Decisions about War in International Studies Review, 16, 4 (2014): 314-316
  • Review of Global Good Samaritans by Alison Brysk, in Perspectives on Politics 10, 1 (March 2012): 210-212
  • Review of The Problem of Harm in World Politics: Theoretical Investigations by Andrew Linklater in International Affairs, 87, 6 (2011): 1508-1510
  • Review of Morality and War: Can War be Just in the Twenty-First Century by David Fisher, in The Expository Times 123, 3 (2011): 151-152
  • Review of The Price of Peace, by Charles Reed and David Ryall, Journal of Military Ethics 7, 2 (2008): 157-159
  • Review of William Connolly: Democracy, Pluralism and Political Theory, by Samuel Chambers and Terrell Carver, International Affairs 84, 4 (July 2008): 831-833

Book Chapters

  • "Claiming (Human) Rights" in Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray, eds., Protecting Human Rights in an Age of Uncertainty (London: Routledge, forthcoming)
  • "Hugo Grotius' in Cian Driscoll and Daniel Brustetter, eds., Just War Thinkers: From Cicero to Today" (London: Routledge, forthcoming)
  • "Violence and International Political Theory" in Chris Brown and Robyn Eckersley, eds., Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming)
  • With Andrea Birdsall, ‘The International Criminal Court and Global Constitutionalism’ in Anthony F Lang, Jr and Antje Wiener, eds., Handbook on Global Constitutionalism (London: Edward Elgar Publishers, forthcoming)
  • With Andrea Birdsall, ‘Justice and (Global) Constitutionalism: The International Criminal Court in the Global Order’ in Melissa Labonte and Kurt Mills, eds., Human Rights and Justice, forthcoming
  • "Rules, Power, and Constitutions: Following Onuf" in Harry Gould, ed., The Art of World-Making (London: Routledge, forthcoming)
  • "The Philosopher and the Discipline" in Richard Ned Lebow, Peer Schouten, and Hidemi Suganami eds., The Return of the Theorists: Dialogues with Great Thinkers in International Relations (London: Palgrave, 2016): 44-56
  • “The Politics of Shared Responsibility” in Andre Knollkaemper and Dov Jacobs, eds.,  Distribution of Responsibilities in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015): 62-86
  •  “Between: International Law in the Fiction of China Mieville” in Caroline Edwards and Antonio Venezia, eds., China Mieville: Critical Essays (Kent: Glyphi, 2015): 221-245
  •   “Constitutionalism and the Law: Evaluating the UN Security Council” in Trudy Fraser and Vesselin Popovski, eds., Security Council Resolutions and Global Legal Regimes (UN University Press, 2014): 12-33
  • “ Arendt and the Question of Revolution ” in Patrick Hayden, ed., Hannah Arendt: Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2014): 167-184
  • "Global Constitutionalism as Middle Ground Ethics" in Cornelia Navari, ed., Ethical Reasoning in International Affairs: Arguments from the Middle Ground (Palgrave, 2013): 106-126
  • "Narrative Authority" in Anthony F Lang, Jr., Cian O'Driscoll, and John Williams, eds., The Just War Tradition: The Practice of Authority and Authority in Practice (Georgetown University Press, 2013)
  • “Punishing Genocide: A Critical Reading of the International Court of Justice” in Tracy Issacs and Richard Vernon, eds., Accountability for Collective Wrongdoing (Cambridge University Press, 2010): 93-118
  • “Authority and the Problem of Non-State Actors” in Eric Heinze and Brent Steele, eds., Just War and Non-State Actors (Routledge, 2010): 47-71
  • “Humanitarian Intervention” in Duncan Bell, ed., Ethics and World Politics (Oxford University Press, 2010): 324-341
  •  “Humanitarian Intervention” in Patrick Hayden, ed., The Ashgate Research Companion to Ethics and International Affairs (Ashgate, 2009): 133-150
  •  “Evil, Agency and Punishment” in Renee Jeffery, ed., Confronting Evil: Ethical Responses to Problems of Moral Agency (Palgrave, 2008): 89-114
  • “A Realist in the Utopian City: Boutros Boutros-Ghali’s Ethical Framework and its Impact” in Kent Kille, ed., UN Secretary-General as a Moral Authority: Ethics and Religion in International Leadership (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2007): 265-298
  • “Morgenthau, Agency and Aristotle” in Michael Williams, ed., Reconsidering Realism: The Legacy of Hans J. Morgenthau in International Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007): 18-41
  • “Normative Causes and Consequences: Understanding and Evaluating the War with Iraq” in Raymond Hinnebusch and Rick Fawn, eds., The Iraq War: Causes and Consequences (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006): 269-282
  • “Governance and Political Protest: Hannah Arendt on Global Political Protest” in Anthony F Lang, Jr and John Williams, eds., Hannah Arendt and International Relations: Reading Across the Lines (New York: Palgrave, 2005): 179-198.
  • “Punitive Intervention: Enforcing Justice or Creating Conflict?” in Mark Evans, ed., Just War Theory: A Reappraisal (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005): 50-70
  • “Responsibility and Agency:  The UN and the Fall of Srebrenicia” in Toni Erskine, ed., Can Institutions Have Responsibilities? (London: Palgrave Press, 2003): 183-206.
  • “Conflicting Narratives, Conflicting Moralities: The United Nations and the Failure of Humanitarian Intervention” in Francois Debrix, ed., Language, Agency and Politics in a Constructed World (Armonk, M. E. Sharpe, 2003): 171-195

Invited Talks, Lectures and Seminars

  • "Religion, Responsibility and Global Citizenship” Workshop on Religion and Global Citizenship, Center for the Study of Religion and Conflict, Arizona State University, held in London, 8-9 August 2016
  • "Constituent Power in International Political Theory" City University, London, 3 December 2015
  • "Islamic Constitutionalism" Al Maktoum College, Dundee, 9 April 2015
  • "Just War and World War I: Questions of Responsibility" Workshop on Culture, Theology and World War I at Oxford Research Centre for the Humanities, 19 September 2014
  • "From Sheriff to Judge: Reimagining Punishment, Justice and International Relations” ESRC Workshop on The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute: The ICC After Libya” University of Leeds, 24 April 2014
  • "Political Responsibility" SHARES Seminar on Distribution of Responsibilities in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam, 30-31 May 2013
  • "Hannah Arendt, Revolutions and Constituent Power" Edinburgh University Law Seminar, 3 April 2013
  •  “An Economic Interpretation of the Global Constitution” University of Strathclyde School of Law, 27 February 2013
  • “From Revolutions to Constitutions: The Case of Egypt” University of Hamburg Program on Globalization and Global Governance, 9 January 2013
  • Commentator on Friedrich Kratochwil, The Status of Law in Global Society, University of Hamburg Program on Constitutionalism Unbound, 7 December 2012
  • “Narrative Authority” University of St Andrews, School of Divinity, Centre for Religion and Politics Seminar, 1 November 2012
  • “Global Constitutionalism as Middle Ground Ethics” University of St Andrews, School of International Relations Seminar, 8 October 2012
  • "International Security: Three Perspectives” United Nations University, Tokyo Japan, 24-27 September 2012
  • “What is International Political Theory” Edinburgh University Political Theory workshop, 3 November 2010
  • “Intervention and Statebuilding: State of the Art” Westminster Univeristy, 10 June 2010
  • “An Economic Interpretation of the Global Constitution” Global Crisis and Constitutionalization Workshop, Birmingham University, 17 March 2010
  •  “What is International Political Theory” University of Aberystwyth, 9 November 2009.
  • “What is International Political Theory?” London School of Economics, Department of International Relations IPT Seminar, 19 October 2009
  • “The Authority of the Just War Tradition: Church or Scholar?” Contemporary Just War Dynamics, Durham University, 15-16 September 2009
  • “Politicizing Rules and Responsibility in International Relations” Florida International University Mini-Conference on International Ethics in a Time of Insecurity, 19 February 2009
  • “Punishing States? A Critical Reading of the International Court of Justice” Workshop on Collective Punishment, University of Western Ontario, April 2009
  • “The Politics of International Punishment” London School of Economics Cumberland Lodge Conference, The Politics of International Law, 23-2 November 2007
  • “Can Rules Make us Safer?” Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, 5 September 2007
  • Rules and International Security” Institute for International Law and Politics, Georgetown University, 7 September 2007
  • Punitive Intervention” University of Glasgow Seminar Series, March 14, 2005
  • “Global Capital Punishment: What Should Happen To Osama bin Laden?” Luncheon Address at a conference, “The Past, Present, and Future of Political Violence and Pacifism” University of Southern Mississippi, April 2, 2004.
  •  “Punitive Intervention: Enforcing Justice or Generating Restraint?” International Political Theory Seminar, Centre for International Studies, Cambridge University, UK, November 24, 2003.
  • “Just War and International Law” PIER Summer Institute, Yale University, July 11, 2003
  • “Islam and International Affairs” Star Island International Affairs Conference, July 21-25, 2003
  • “War as Punishment: Challenges for Security and Liberty in the New World Order” Keynote Speaker, Global Understanding Convention, Monmouth University, Monmouth NJ, April 9, 2003
  • “Agency and Ethics: Using Political Philosophy to Interpret Black Hawk Down” United States Naval Academy Ethics Roundtable, Annapolis MD, February 4, 2003
  • “Agency and Ethics: Norms and Humanitarian Intervention” Brown University Ethics Colloquium, Thomas J. Watson Institute, Brown University, February 5, 2002


  • American Political Science Association
  • International Studies Association
  • British International Studies Association
  • Political Studies Association

Editorial Positions

  • Editorial Board, Global Constitutionalism
  • Editorial Board, Journal of International Political Theory
  • Editorial Board, Ethics & International Affairs


  • IR3041 Introduction to International Political Theory
  • IR3051 International Relations Theory
  • IR4518: Ethics and the Use of Force
  • IR5026: Ethics and the Use of Force
  • IR5408: Global Constitutionalism
  • IR5526 Law and Society in the Middle East


  • Head of School, School of International Relations

Current Research Students

First Supervisor

  • Mohammed Asfhaq
  • Helga Haflidadottir
  • Holly Marshall (50/50 with Professor Patrick Hayden)
  • David Miles
  • Andreas Papamichael
  • Christof Royer
  • Jenna Sapian

Second Supervisor

  • Josephine Jackson
  • John-Harmen Volk

PhD Supervision topics

  • International political theory
  • Global Constitutionalism
  • State responsibility
  • Humanitarian intervention

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