Dr Bridget Heal

Bridget M Heal

MA (Cantab), MA (Lond.), PhD (Lond.) - Senior Lecturer

Contact Details

E-mail - bmh6@st-andrews.ac.uk
Telephone - +44 (0)1334 462909
Fax - +44 (0)1334 463334

Research Profile on Research@StAndrews



Teaching and Research Interests

European (especially German) religious and social history of the late fifteenth century to the eighteenth century, with particular interest in the visual culture of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation and in women’s history.

Main Publications


  • 'The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany: Protestant and Catholic Piety, 1500-1648' (Cambridge University Press, 2007) [More details]

Edited Volume

  • With Ole Grell, 'The Impact of the European Reformation: Princes, Clergy and People' (Ashgate, 2008)


  • ‘Kirchenordnungen und das Weiterbestehen religiöser Kunstwerke in lutherischen Kirchen’ in ‚Ordnungen für die Kirche – Wirkungen auf die Welt: Evangelische Kirchenordnungen des 16. Jahrhunderts‘ ed. Sabine Arend und Gerald Dörner (Mohr Siebeck, 2015)
  • ‘Commemoration and Consolation: Images in Lutheran Saxony, c.1550-1700‘ in ‘Preparing for Death, remembering the Dead’, ed. Tarald Rasmussen and Jon Øygarden Flæten (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015)
  • ‘Seeing Christ: Visual Piety in Saxony’s Erzgebirge’ in ‘Visual Acuity and the Arts of Communication in Early Modern Germany’, ed. Jeffrey Chipps Smith, (Ashgate, 2014)
  • ‘Church Space and Religious Change in Reformation Germany’, in ‘Religious Conversion: History, Experience and Meaning’, ed. Ira Katznelson and Miri Rubin (Ashgate, 2014)
  • “Zum Andenken und zur Ehre Gottes”: Kunst und Frömmigkeit im frühneuzeitlichen Luthertum in Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 104 (2013), pp.185-210
  • 'The Catholic Eye and the Protestant Ear: the Reformation as a non-visual event?’ in ‘The Myth of the Reformation’, ed. Peter Opitz (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013)
  • ‘”Better Papist than Calvinist”: Art and Identity in Later Lutheran Germany’, German History 29/4 (2011), pp.584-609
  • ‘Mary “Triumphant over Demons and also Heretics”: Religious Symbols and Confessional Uniformity in Catholic Germany’ in Diversity and Dissent: Negotiating Religious Differences in Central Europe, 1500-1800 ed. Howard Louthan, Gary B. Cohen and Franz A. J. Szabo (Berghahn Books, 2011)
  • ‘Sacred image and sacred space in sixteenth-century Germany’ in 'Sacred Space: The Redefinition of Sanctity in Post-Reformation Europe' ed. Will Coster and Andrew Spicer (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
  • ‘Marian devotion and confessional identity in sixteenth-century Germany’ in 'Studies in Church History volume 39, The Church and Mary', ed. Robert Swanson (Ecclesiastical History Society / Boydell and Brewer, 2004)
  • ‘Images of the Virgin Mary and Marian devotion in Protestant Nuremberg’ in 'Religion and “Superstition” in Reformation Europe', ed. Bill Naphy and Helen Parish (Manchester University Press, 2003)
  • ‘Civitas Virginis? The significance of civic dedication to the Virgin for the development of Marian Imagery in Siena before 1311’ in 'Art, Politics, and Civic Religion in Central Italy, 1261 – 1352', ed. Joanna Cannon and Beth Williamson (Ashgate, 2000)

Administrative Duties

Director of the Reformation Studies Institute

Reformation Studies MLitt Co-ordinator

Co-editor of German History

Member of editorial boards of:

Member of the executive committee of the Verein für Reformationsgeschichte


Research Students

Nadja Kundmüller, The cult of the Eucharist in early modern Bavaria
Róisín Watson, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century German religious and gender history

Teaching Duties

Dr Heal teaches on the sub-honours courses MO1007 and HI2001, participates in the Evening Degree Programme teaching MO3910 The Reformation in Europe and offers the following honours course:

MO3026 Art and Piety in Western Europe, 1400-1700



Main Publications

The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany