University of St Andrews

Postgraduate Opportunities

Environmental Geography

For further details regarding funding, please see our Funding Opportunities page and Application guidance.

Applications to work on any topic in Environmental Geography are welcome, although we particularly encourage applications to work on the following topics:

Valuing neo-native species. Is naturalised Scots pine a threat or benefit for climate resilience?


Supervisors: Dr Althea Davies (St Andrews) and Professor Alistair Jump (Stirling)

Managing novel ecological communities will become an increasing priority as species reorganise into new assemblages in response to environmental change. Keeping pace with such changes poses a major challenge for conservation policy and practice as conservation strategies often resist the transformation of currently valued habitats and this may prevent species from adapting to climate change. The central aim of this project is to evaluate the role that novel communities play in species adaptation and ecosystem functionThis will be achieved by focusing on naturalised Scots pine in England and southern Scotland as a case study

For further information, select the Valuing Neo-native Species (PDF, 1,752 KB).

Non-linear visualisation techniques for linking movement to its environmental context


Supervisor: Dr Urška Demšar

Visualising the geometry of GPS trajectories is becoming very common. However, since their geometry and temporal progression already use the two or three display dimensions available for visualisation, visually integrating the additional contextual environmental information into the display becomes very difficult. This project will develop new visualisation techniques based on non-linear deformations of 2D graphics. Paths are often difficult to visualise and analyse because our perceptual system cannot easily dissociate their shape from the data. (e.g. it is difficult to estimate the length of a path when the path has many turns). One possible way to address this is to  “unwrap” trajectories into easier geometries that can be readily understood and visually perceived. For example, roads and rivers can be “straightened”, areas can be non-uniformly condensed or expanded, in a similar way as distorting funfair mirrors do. Such non-linear deformations are well known in computer graphics, but their application in movement visualisation has been limited so far. This project requires a student with a degree in geoinformatics or computer science and interest in information visualisation. Note that computer programming experience is essential (Python, java, and preferably visualisation environments, such as Processing and/or D3.js) and students with limited programming experience should not apply.

Spatial-temporal interactions in wildlife: The role of landscape features


Supervisor: Dr Jed Long

Dr Long is seeking a PhD student who is interested in using GIS and spatial analysis to study spatial-temporal interactions in wildlife using data collected via GPS tracking collars. Of special interest is the study of how landscape features (e.g., habitat, roads, barriers) influence the emergence of interactive behaviour in wildlife, considering both inter- and intra-species interactions. Empirical GPS data will come from collaboration between Dr Long and the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, who have extensive GPS tracking data on white-tailed deer in the United States. This project is applicable to any student interested jointly in wildlife conservation and spatial ecology. Students with previous expertise in GIS, spatial analysis, statistics, and/or experience in computer programming (e.g., Python, R) will be highly desirable. 

Amazonian peatland vegetation and its representation in the modern pollen rain


Supervisors: Dr Katy RoucouxDr Ian Lawson and Dr Althea Davies

Pollen analysis of peat cores obtained in the peatlands of Peruvian Amazonia has demonstrated their potential to record the developmental history of these ecosystems through the Holocene in considerable temporal detail. However, the interpretation of these records is currently limited by our poor understanding of how peat- and wetland vegetation communities are represented in the pollen signal. The primary aim of this project is to establish the relationship between the vegetation communities of Amazon peatlands and the pollen rain they produce. Detailed consideration of the full range of peat-forming and wetland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon Fan Basin in northern Peru (the largest peatland complex in Amazonia), in terms of their species composition, hydrological and sedimentological characteristics, and their representation by the pollen rain, will enable significant improvements to be made to existing interpretations of sub-fossil pollen records from Amazonia. By adding substantially to our understanding of peatland vegetation history and, by extension, peat accumulation processes and drivers, this project has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the growing field of tropical peatland science.

For further information, select Peruvian pollen rain project (PDF, 681 KB)

Environmental history of tropical forests: a palaeoecological test of the “stability hypothesis”


Supervisors: Dr Katy Roucoux and Dr Ian Lawson

Tropical rain forests are changing: accumulating additional biomass and changing in species composition. Tropical forests play a major role in the global carbon cycle and climate system so it is essential that we understand the cause of these changes. A number of explanations have been proposed, including fertilization by increasing carbon dioxide levels and recovery from past disturbances brought about by climatic events or anthropogenic activities. One way to test whether or not forests have been disturbed in the past is to use the palaeoecological record provided by peat accumulating in a forest hollows. These records present an exciting opportunity to extend our knowledge of these forests back 1000 years and thus enable us to test the extent to which forest composition, and environmental conditions, have been stable during this time. The project will: (1) use pollen analysis to establish the long-term (centennial to millennial scale) history of terra firme rain forest at sites in Peruvian Amazonia (focusing on forest areas which are already the subject of decadal scale monitoring); (2) determine whether or not these communities have been stable for the last c. 1000 years; and (3) if changes in forest composition are apparent, establish their cause.

For further information, select Environmental history of tropical forests project (PDF, 715 KB)  

The impact of human activity and climate change on carbon cycling and acidification in Scottish lochs


Supervisors: Dr William Austin

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the factor causing the recent browning of water in upland Scottish lochs. The increasing DOC is also changing carbon cycling and greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) emissions from the water-air interface in these systems. The reconstruction of long-term history of DOC has been explored using diatoms, a major group of algae with a cell wall made of silicon dioxide. However, the reconstructed DOC results are not reliable because of the strong influence of lake water pH on the DOC-diatom relationship. The development of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a new way to research the history of lake water quality including DOC and pH. Pilot work has established the optical metrics of aromaticity (specific absorbance, fluorescence index) and levels of lake water chemistry, including DOC, pH and nitrogen; human impact including land cover change; and climate variables. This PhD project will explore the impact of human activity, such as coal burning and land use change, as well as climate change (precipitation and temperature) on Scottish loch water environments over the last 1,000 years using the NIRS and diatom research methods. Fieldwork will include water and surface sediment collection from around 100 lakes and rivers and one short sediment core from a typical lake. The laboratory work will be conducted through the School’s Facility for Earth and Environmental Analysis (FEEA) and via collaboration with the Scottish Alliance for Geoscience, Environment and Society (SAGES). Principally, we are seeking an enthusiastic natural scientist with a background in physical geography, environmental science, or other cognate discipline.

Understanding the developmental history of peatland ecosystems in a priority region for conservation in the Congo Basin


Supervisors: Dr Ian Lawson (University of St Andrews), Dr Simon Lewis (University College London/University of Leeds)

Ongoing work by Ms Greta Dargie, a PhD student currently being supervised by Drs Lewis, Lawson and others, has shown, for the first time, that very large areas of the swamp forests of the Congo Basin are underlain by peats up to 7 m thick. Firm estimates of the likely area of peat swamp forest are still being developed but the total area is likely to be well in excess of 10,000 square kilometres. This project aims to develop the first palaeoecological records from these swamps, addressing research questions including: How stable are carbon sequestration processes over time? Do different swamp vegetation communities relate via a simple set of successional pathways? Can we explain the present-day vegetation in terms of its developmental history? And how have environmental conditions in the basin changed over recent geological time?

For further information, select Congo basin peatland history PhD project (PDF, 637 KB)

The environmental and societal impacts of an exceptionally large basaltic flood eruption


Supervisor: Dr Richard Streeter and Dr Althea Davies

The early 10th century in Iceland was a time of rapid ecological change following its settlement some 50 years previously and theintroduction of grazing animals. Around the same time was the eruption of Eldgjá (AD 934-936), which stands out as one of the largest fissure eruptions experienced by humans in historical times. Over 14 km3 of magma was erupted, of which 4 km3 was volcanic ash (tephra), making this eruption significantly larger than, for example, that of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. This ash covered the newly settled region of Skaftártunga, ~ 20 km to the southeast of the fissure, to a depth of 20-60 cm. Although the effects of the extensive lava flows on regional hydrology and areas directly next to the fissure are known, much less is understood about the ecological, geomorphic and social consequences in inhabited areas close to the eruption. The impact of volcanic ash on vegetation cover and settlement patterns is complex and not simply correlated to the depth of ash fall. In Skaftártunga the depth of the tephra fall was unusually deep for settled areas in Iceland, and came at a time ofrapid transformation of pre-settlement vegetation and soils and before settlement patterns had become fixed. Unlike many parts of Iceland we do not know exactly what sort of landscape had been created by the first settlers in this region when the eruption occurred. This project will (1) attempt to reconstruct the rate and pattern of vegetation change over the past 2000 yrs in Skaftártunga (2) map geomorphic change and the timings of erosion scar formation and (3) link with on going archaeological work in the area in order to understand the impacts of this eruption on settlement patterns. This combination of geomorphological and palaeoecological approaches potentially allows the assessment the long-term impacts of thick tephra layers on ecological and social systems.