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Dr Jonathan C N Coulston

Lecturer in Ancient History and Archaeology
Impact Officer

jcnc@st-andrews.ac.uk

Phone: 01334 462612

Room: S14

Research profile

Research Interests

  • Roman Army studies
  • Roman military equipment
  • Ancient warfare
  • Roman provincial archaeology
  • Trajan's Column
  • Roman art (especially stone sculpture)
  • Roman architecture
  • The City of Rome.
  • Asiatic steppe nomads
  • Conflict landscape archaeology

Current research projects

My principal publication project is a monograph dealing with the architecture, sculpting and relief content of Trajan’s Column in Rome (All the Emperor’s Men. Roman Soldiers and Barbarians on Trajan’s Column). With Lindsey Allason-Jones (Newcastle) I am compiling the Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani fascicule for Northern England. With Hazel Dodge and Christopher Smith I am writing a source-book for Routledge concerned with the ancient city of Rome. The updated and considerably expanded second edition of Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome appeared in 2006. I have also been publishing papers in two specific and expanding academic areas: gladiatorial studies, and conflict landscape (‘battlefield’) archaeology.

Editorial committees: Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies; Gladius. Estudios sobre armas antiguas, armamento, arte military y vida cultural en oriente y occidente (Madrid).
I am also a member of the administrative committee for the Roman Military Equipment Conferences (RoMEC).

Invited papers read at universities and to conferences at Aberystwyth, Amsterdam, Budapest, Capri, Chattanooga, Dublin, Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Honolulu, København, Leiden, Leuven, Liverpool, Louisville, Mainz, Marburg, Montpellier, München, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, Ontario, Osnabrück, Oxford, Philadelphia, Roma, Ruse, Schleswig, St Andrews, Segovia, Sheffield, South Shields, Warsaw, Wien, Windisch and Zagreb

I have contributed as an advisor and ‘talking head’ to numerous radio and television programmes (Time Watch, Terry Jones’ Barbarians etc.), and have consulted on archaeological reconstructions for National Geographic Magazine.

Elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1995) and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London (2003).

Publications

The First and Second Sikh Wars: An Official British Army History
Burton, R. G. & Coulston, J. C. N. 2007 Westholme. 208 p.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Cavalry. Its History and Tactics
Coulston, J. C. N. & Nolan, L. E. 2006 Yardley: Westholme. 256 p.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome
Coulston, J. C. N. & Bishop, M. C. 2006 Oxbow. 321 p.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Belisarius
Coulston, J. C. N. & Mahon, L. 2005 Westholme. 256 p.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City
Coulston, J. C. N. & Dodge, H. 2000 Oxford University School of Archaeology. 408 p.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome
Coulston, J. C. N. & Bishop, M. C. 1993 Batsford.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Roman Military Equipment
Coulston, J. C. N. & Bishop, M. C. 1989 Shire.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani, Great Britain I,6, Hadrian's Wall West of the River North Tyne, and Carlisle
Coulston, J. C. N. & Phillips, E. J. 1988 British Academy.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers. Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference
Coulston, J. C. N. 1988 British Archaeological Reports.
Research output: Book/ReportBook

 

Imitation and inspiration in 'Roman' archery
Coulston, J. C. N. 10 Jun 2016 Imitation and Inspiration. Proceedings of the 18th International Roman Military Equipment Conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 9th-14th June 2013. Pauli Jensen, X. & Grane, T. (eds.). p. 203-14 12 p. (Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies; vol. 17)
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

'Germans and other 'minority' barbarians in the armies on Trajan's Column'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2015 NON SOLUM...SED ETIAM. Festschrift für Thomas Fischer zum 65. Geburtstag. Henrich, P., Miks, C., Obmann, J. & Wieland, M. (eds.). Rahden, Germany: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, p. 73-82 10 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

‘The Maryport altars revisited’
Coulston, J. C. N. 2015 Weihealtäre in Tempeln und Heiligtümern. Busch, A. & Schäfer, A. (eds.). Friedberg, Germany, p. 381-96 16 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

‘Archers, sagittarii, Republic’, ‘Archers, sagitarii, Principate’, ‘Bow’, ‘Column of Marcus Aurelius’, ‘Depictions, military’, ‘Marcus Aurelius’, ‘Music, Principate’, ‘Parades, decursio, Republic’, Rewards, Republic’, ‘Rewards, Principate’, ‘Rewards, Dominate’, ‘Training, Principate’, ‘Trajan’s Column’
Coulston, J. C. N. 2015 Encyclopedia of the Roman Army. Le Bohec, Y. (ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary

'Graves on war and the Late Antique: Count Belisarius and his world'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2015 Robert Graves and the Classical Tradition. Gibson, A. G. G. (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 99-122 24 p. (Classical Presences)
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Monumentalising military service: soldiers in Romano-British sculpture'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2014 Life in the Limes. Studies of the People and Objects of the Roman Frontiers. Collins, R. & McIntosh, F. (eds.). Oxford: Oxbow, p. 68-78 14 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The International Context'
Coulston, J. C. N. & Bishop, M. 2013 The Crosby Garrett Helmet. Breeze, D. J. & Bishop, M. C. (eds.). Pewsey, UK: The Armatura Press, p. 34-46 13 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

‘Courage and cowardice in the Roman imperial army’
Coulston, J. C. N. 2013 War in History. Madigan, E. (ed.). Vol. 20.1, p. 7-31 25 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

‘Late Roman military equipment culture’
Coulston, J. C. N. 2013 The Archaeology of War in Late Antiquity. Lavan, L. & Sarantis, A. (eds.). Leiden: EJ Brill Publishers, p. 463-92 15 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Weaponry, Rome'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2012 Encyclopedia of Ancient History. Bagnall, R. S., Brodersen, K., Champion, C. B., Erskine, A. & Huebner, S. R. (eds.). Maiden MA: Wiley-Blackwell
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary

'Military equipment of the ‘long’ 4th century on Hadrian’s Wall'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2010 Finds from the Frontier: Material Culture in the 4th-5th Centuries. Collins, R. & Allason-Jones, L. (eds.). York: Council for British Archaeology, p. 50-63 (CBA Research Report; vol. 162)
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Victory and defeat in the Roman arena: the evidence of gladiatorial iconography'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2009 Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21st Century Perspective. Wilmott, T. (ed.). p. 195-210
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Decorated iron sword guard'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2008 Petra - The Mountain of Aaron 1. Fiema, Z. T. & Froesen, J. (eds.). Societas Scientiarum Fennica, p. 401-3
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Immortalising victory: votive weapons depositions in northern Europe and the Roman empire'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2008 Aktuelle Forschungen zu Kriegsbeuteopfern und Furstengrabern im Barbarikum. A. Abegg-Wegg and A. Rau, . M. D. (ed.). Archaeologisches Landesmuseum Schleswig, p. 307-30
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Central Asia from the Scythians to the Huns'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2008 Warfare in the Ancient World. De Souza, P. (ed.). Thames and Hudson Ltd, p. 216-27
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 284'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2008 Warfare in the Ancient World. De Souza, P. (ed.). Thames and Hudson Ltd, p. 182-201
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Art, culture and service: the depiction of soldiers on 3rd century AD military gravestones'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2007 The Impact of the Roman Army. De Blois, L. (ed.). J.C. Gieben, p. 529-61
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'By the sword united: Roman fighting styles on the battlefield and in the arena'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2007 The Cutting Edge: Studies in Ancient and Medieval Combat. Molloy, B. (ed.). Tempus, p. 34-51
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Arms and Armour'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2006 The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Bispam, E. (ed.). Edinburgh University Press, p. 231-37
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Arms and armour (Greek and Roman)', 'Artillery', 'Archery', 'Legions', 'Mutiny', 'Dacian Wars', 'Teutoburgian forest (clades Varianae)', 'Trajan's Column'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2006 The Cambridge Dictionary of Classical Civilisation. Shipley, G. (ed.). Cambridge University Press
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Military identity and personal self-identity in the Roman army'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2004 Roman Rule and Civic Life: Local and Regional Perspectives. De Ligt, L. (ed.). J.C.Gieben, p. 135-52
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Overcoming the Barbarian. Depictions of Rome's Enemies in Trajanic Monumental Art'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2003 The Representation and Perception of Roman Imperial Power. De Blois, L. (ed.). J.C. Gieben, p. 389-424
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'An Imperial Metropolis'
Coulston, J. C. N. & Dodge, H. 2003 Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World. Woolf, G. (ed.). p. 138-169
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Tacitus, Historiae I.79 and the impact of Sarmatian warfare on the Roman empire
Coulston, J. C. N. 2003 Kontakt - Kooperation - Konflikt: Germanen und Sarmaten zwischen dem 1. und dem 4. Jahrhundert nach Christus. von Carnap-Bornheim, C. (ed.). Wachholtz Verlag, p. 415-433
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Arms and Armour of the Late Roman Army'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2002 A Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour. Nicolle, D. (ed.). Boydell & Brewer, p. 3-24
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingOther contribution

'The archaeology of Roman conflict'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2001 Fields of Conflict: Progress and Prospect in Battlefield Archaeology. Freeman, P. W. M. & Pollard, A. (eds.). Archaeopress, Vol. 958, p. 23-49 (British Archaeological Reports (BAR) International Series; vol. 958)
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingOther contribution

'Transport and travel on the Column of Trajan'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2001 Travel and geography in the Roman Empire. Adams, C. & Laurence, R. (eds.). Routledge, p. 106-137
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingOther contribution

'Arrow-heads'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2001 The Petra Church. Fiema, Z. T. (ed.). American Centre for Oriental Research, p. 395-97
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Appendix: Sources for the study of ancient Rome
Coulston, J. C. N. & Dodge, H. 2000 Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City. Coulston, J. & Dodge, H. (eds.). Oxford University School of Archaeology, p. 354-58
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Introduction: the archaeology and topography of Rome'
Coulston, J. C. N. & Dodge, H. 2000 Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City. Coulston, J. & Dodge, H. (eds.). p. 1-15
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Armed and belted men: the soldiery in imperial Rome'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2000 Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City; Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph 54. Coulston, J. & Dodge, H. (eds.). Oxford University Press, p. 76-118
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Scale armour'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1999 Excavations directed by J.D Leach and J.J Wilkes on the site of a Roman fortress at Carpow, Perthshire, 1964-79 , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquities of Scotland, vol 129. Dore, J. N. & Wilkes, J. J. (eds.). p. 561-566
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'How to arm a Roman Soldier'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1998 Modus Operandi. How the Ancient World Worked. Papers Presented to Geoffrey Rickman; BICS supplementary, London, vol 71. Austin, M. N., Harries, J. D. & Smith, C. J. (eds.). p. 167-90
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Architectural stonework', 'Milling stones', 'Stone sculpture'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1997 Birdoswald. Excavations of a Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall and its successor settlements: 1987-92. Wilmott, T. (ed.). English Heritage, p. 128-31, 290-95, 313-19
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The Stone Sculptures'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1997 Roman Maryport and Its Setting. Essays in Memory of Michael G. Jarrett. Wilson, R. J. A. (ed.). Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, p. 112-31
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Artillery'; 'Cohors'; 'Mercenaries, Roman; 'Military Equipment, Roman'; 'Siegework, Roman'; 'Trajan's Column'; 'War, Art of, Roman'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1996 Oxford Classical Dictionary. Hornblower, S. & Spawforth, A. (eds.). Oxford University Press
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Worked stone'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1993 Excavations at Segontium (Caernarfon) Roman Fort, 1975-1979. Casey, J. & Davies, J. L. (eds.). Council for British Archaeology, p. 214-18
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The architecture and construction scenes on Trajan's Column'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1990 Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire. Henig, M. (ed.). Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, p. 39-50
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Sculptures'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1989 The Bridges of Hadrian's Wall. Bidwell, P. & Holbrook, N. (eds.). Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, p. 142 142 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The value of Trajan's Column as a source for military equipment'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1989 Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence. Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference. van Dreiel-Murray, C. (ed.). British Archaeological Reports, p. 31-44
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Three legionaries at Croy Hill, Strathclyde'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1988 Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers. Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference. Coulston, J. C. (ed.). British Archeological Reports, p. 1-29
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Roman military equipment on third century AD tombstones'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1987 The Accoutrements of War. Proceedings of the Third Roman Military Equipment Seminar. Dawson, M. (ed.). British Archaeological Reports, p. 141-56
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Roman, Parthian and Sassanid tactical developments'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1986 The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East. Freeman, P. & Kennedy, D. (eds.). British Archaeological Reports, p. 59-75
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'The Coins'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1985 Alahan: An Early Christian Monastery in Southern Turkey. Gough, M. (ed.). Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, p. 62-8
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Roman Archery Equipment'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1985 The Production and Distribution of Roman Military Equipment. Proceedings of the Second Roman Military Equipment Seminar. Bishop, M. C. (ed.). British Archaeological Reports, p. 220-366
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

'Arms and armour in sculpture'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1983 Roman Military Equipment. Proceedings of a seminar held in the Department of Classical Archaeology at the University of Sheffield, 21st March 1983. Bishop, M. C. (ed.). p. 24-6
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

 

'Greece and Rome (and their enemies) at war'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2012 In : Journal of Roman Archaeology. 25, p. 728-47 19 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'The enemies of Rome'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2008 In : Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 16, p. 17-30 13 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Worked stone' in M.C. Bishop (ed.), 'A new Flavian military site at Roecliffe, North Yorkshire'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2005 In : Britannia. 36, p. 199-201
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Roman military equipment and the archaeology of conflict'
Coulston, J. C. N. 2005 In : Carnuntum Jahrbuch. p. 19-32
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Gladiators and soldiers: personnel and equipment in ludus and castra'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1998 In : Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 9, p. 1-17
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'A preliminary note on scale armour from Carpow, Perthshire'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1994 In : Arma. 4, 2, p. 21-3
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Two representations of 3rd century AD equipment from Cumbria'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1993 In : Arma. 3, 1, p. 2-4
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Sculpted stones' and 'Milling-stones' in M.C. Bishop (ed.), 'Excavations in the Roman fort at Chester-le-Street (Concangis), Church Chare 1990-91'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1992 In : Archaeologia Aeliana. ser. 5, 20, p. 68-71
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'An altar from Chipchase, Northumberland'
Coulston, J. C. N. & Hart, C. R. 1992 In : Archaeologia Aeliana. ser. 5, 20, p. 267-69
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'The 'draco' standard'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1991 In : Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 2, p. 101-14
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Three new books on Trajan's Column'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1990 In : Journal of Roman Archaeology. 3, p. 290-309
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Later Roman armour, 3rd-6th centuries AD'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1990 In : Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 1, p. 139-60
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'A bridge stone from the River Eden at Carlisle'
Coulston, J. C. N. & Caruana, I. D. 1987 In : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. 87, p. 43-51
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'Arms and armour in sculpture'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1984 In : Levant. 16, p. vi
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'A fragmentary altar to Jupiter from Wallsend'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1983 In : Archaeologia Aeliana. ser. 5, 11, p. 309-13
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

'A sculpted Dacian falx from Birdoswald (RIB 1914)'
Coulston, J. C. N. 1981 In : Archaeologia Aeliana. ser. 5, 9, p. 348-51
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

 

‘Romans at War’, review of C.M. Gilliver, The Roman Art of War, Stroud, 1999
Coulston, J. C. N. 2000 In : British Archaeology. 54, p. 28-30
Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article review

Z. Farkas & D. Gabler, Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani, Ungarn, II, Die Skulpturen des Stadtgebietes von Scarbantia und der Limesstrecke ad Flexum-Arrabona, Budapest, 1994
Coulston, J. C. N. 1997 In : Britannia. 28, p. 498-99
Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article review

'No decline and fall in the Roman army', review of P. Southern & K.R. Dixon, The Late Roman Army, London, 1996
Coulston, J. C. N. 1996 In : British Archaeology. 18, p. 12 12 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article review

M. Junckelmann, Die Reiter Roms, I-III, Mainz, 1991-93
Coulston, J. C. N. 1995 In : Britannia. 26, p. 407-9
Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article review

C. Bossert-Radtker, CSIR Schweiz III, Die Figurlichen Rundskulpturen und Reliefs aus Augst und Kaiseraugst (Forschungen in Augst 16), Augst, 1992
Coulston, J. C. N. 1994 In : Britannia. 25, p. 321-22
Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article review

 

'Roman Army Gallery', BBC website
Coulston, J. C. N. 17 Feb 2011
Research output: Non-textual formWeb publication/site

Roman Army Gallery
Coulston, J. C. N. 2006
Research output: Non-textual formWeb publication/site

 

For further information on publications, please view my profile on the university's research portal.

Research students

I would be happy to supervise suitable students in the areas implied by my research interests, especially in Roman military matters.

Teaching

In addition to team-teaching Sub-Honours courses in Greek and Roman history, I offer the following one-semester Honours modules: The Ancient City of Rome (AN4121), The Roman Army (AN4130), Roman Imperial Art (AN4117), The Archaeology of Roman Britain (AN4145) and Principles and Techniques of Archaeology (AN3020). The latter is the core module for the joint degrees in Ancient History and Archaeology, and Mediaeval History and Archaeology. I also administer fourth year dissertations across the School of Classics, contribute to graduate core teaching, and offer a series of themed graduate modules.

Academic Career

I graduated in 1978 from the University of Leicester with a BA in History, then went on to study for an MPhil (Archaeology of the Roman Empire,1980) and a PhD (1988) at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. My research concerned Trajan's Column in Rome, under the supervision of Charles Daniels. Thereafter I was a tutor in the Centre for Continuing Education and a Guest Lecturer in the Dept of Archaeology at Newcastle. In 1995 I was appointed to my present post as Lecturer in Ancient History in the University of St Andrews. Since 2005 I have been a Research Associate in the Department of Classics, Trinity College Dublin.

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